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CAE Simulation

CAE Simulation is at the core of what we do at our BroadTech Engineering offices in Singapore.CAE Simulation

Featured CAE Simulation Case Studies

CFD Airflow Simulation of New Air Conditioning Design

Objective: Our consultants implement both CAE and actual testing for every new air conditioning designs.
Approach: CFD utilizes to get PQ curve, air flow at different rpm to justify few designs. Discussion held with designers with supporting CFD results and optimize for the final design.
Trimmed mesh and polyhedral mesh use in airflow simulation. Element size needs to control to balance between computational cost and accuracy. Both steady and transient RANS, k-epsilon implement in airflow simulation.
Results: Both outdoor units and indoor units simulate in CFD and correlate with prototype results obtained from the in-house wind tunnel.

Design optimization of Payload fairing of Launch Vehicle & Strap-on nose Cone.

Objective: Parametric studies are carried out to optimize the payload fairing of a launch vehicle and nose cone shape of the strap-on. The parameters are the shape of nose cone (ogive, slanted, slanted ogive), PLF cylinder length, Nose bluntness, and Nosecone angle were studied.
Methodology: Three-dimensional models are generated using Catia V5 and the structured grid is generated with ICEM CFD and RANS simulations were done using CFD++ (more than 50 simulations) in the transonic and supersonic regimes for the various angle of attacks.
Outcome: Recommendations were made for the ogive nose for PLF and slanted nose cone for strap-on configuration over other configurations. Further, structural and manufacturing aspects are discussed.

CAA (Computational Aeroacoustic) Simulation

Objective: Every new design needs to pass both airflow and sound set by design objective. The objective of CAA carried out is to filter designs in the pre-development stage to help designers reduce the number of prototypes needed.
Another objective of steady-state CAA is to identify noise source before proceeding to transient simulation.
Approach: Steady-state CAA is carried out by implement RANS, k-epsilon with trimmed mesh. Steady-state CAA also acts as precursor simulation before proceeding to transient, to further reduce transient simulation time required, which is more computationally expensive.
Result: Broadband Noise Source model, Curle, and Proudman implement in our practice to identify noise source. Both Curle and Proudman need one step iteration after converged steady-state simulation, which is far computational cheaper than transient simulation and suitable for early-stage designs filter.


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BroadTech Engineering is a Leading Engineering Simulation and Numerical Modelling Consultancy in Singapore.
We Help Our Clients Gain Valuable Insights to Optimize and Improve Product Performance, Reliability, and Efficiency.


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1. Powerful Simulation Software Tools

1. Powerful Simulation Software Tools

2. Simulation Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

2. Simulation Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

3. Simulation projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

3. Simulation projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

4. Proven Track Record

4. Proven Track Record

5. Affordable

5. Affordable

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

Building HVAC CFD Simulation

Objective: We worked closely with our client’s CAE Engineer, where our simulation consultants are being assigned to handle Building HVAC CFD Simulation Projects.
Approach: We using Cd-Adapco Star CCM+ as CFD simulation software. CAD software is SolidWorks or NX.
We will simulate Panasonic outdoor units which install at air conditioning ledge for new condominiums and other commercial buildings. The objective is to simulate the worst condition where all outdoor units at same block operate at maximum cooling load and ambient temperature of the hot afternoon, whether the suction temperature of outdoor units will exceed maximum operating temperature set by a manufacturer or not. Building heights, geometry, and 4 wind directions and speed included in the simulation.
The fundamental theory implements in this simulation are Q=mc(deltaT), where discharge temperature will feedback to a suction side of outdoor units if any recirculation of hot air occurs. Steady-state RANS, k-epsilon implement in this simulation. Residuals value are kept under 1.0e-4 to ensure a converged solution.
Results: Reports generated to acts as supporting documents and give confidence to clients and recommendations given to consultants or architects if units exceed maximum operating temperature set.

Direct Noise Simulation (DNS)

Most accurate results can be obtained compared to FW-H simulation, but very high computational cost. Trimmed mesh, DES with SST-K omega use in DNS.
Objective: The objective of this simulation is to capture the pressure variation generated by sound wave and plot dBA over frequency graph, which the same graph also can be obtained in an experiment.
Approach Methodology:
Base mesh size calculated base on the relationship between resolvable frequency, the speed of sound and number of cells per wavelength(cannot describe to detail, confidential).
Maximum cell size near interest region also can be calculated and control using methodology developed.
Residuals and pressure time derivative monitored during simulation. Pressure time derivative scene monitored, to check whether any reflection of unwanted sound waves in a boundary, which is unwanted noise in this case. Meshing or boundary adjustment required if a reflection of sound waves noticed.
Both indoor and outdoor prototype carry out a sound experiment in an in-house full anechoic room. Background noise measure before and after an experiment. Background noise data included in both experiment and simulation during correlation.
Sampling rate is very important and must be same for both simulation and experiment, for correlation purpose. If sampling rate is not the same, cannot compare apple to apple. Raw data, pressure against time data can be obtain from both simulation and experiment. Post-processing can be done in Star-CCM+ by doing FFT and generate dBA against frequency graph. Sound level at blade passing frequency (BPF) and overall dBA are criteria for design objective and correlation. Conclusion: both meshing and boundary condition are very important in DNS, physic to implement can refer to published papers and best practice share by experts and other CFD users.

Numerical Analysis of Gas Distribution in Fluidized Beds

Objective: The objectives of this project are to improve the performance of fluidized bed drying using different ideas such as new designs of the distribution plate and gas chamber, by modifying the gas injection system or by using intermittency. The goal is to carry out a numerical study to understand the effect of various operating parameters and geometric changes. The numerical simulations will be carried out using ANSYS Fluent V18.2.
Methodology: The Gas distribution of fluidized bed column is simulated in stages. First, the gas chamber and the gas distributor are simulated together for single phase i.e., air as an inlet fluid.
The single and multi-phase flow theories used for the current simulations using ANSYS Fluent V18.2, Transient flow, drag model applied, group B particle of 275-micron diameter is used, grid independence test is carried out to understand the effects of grid sizing.
Outcome/Conclusion: In this research, a number of gas distribution systems with various gas distributor designs were proposed. Their performance in terms of the uniformity of gas distribution at the exit of orifice holes of the gas distributor was examined with the use of computational fluid dynamic analysis. The simulations were carried out in ANSYS FLUENT v18.1 and 18.2 using single and multiphase models. The base case design of gas distributor with uniform percentage open area showed the non-uniform distribution of gas. Hence, the distributor geometries with different percentage open area (for the circular pattern and triangular pitch arrangement), type of gas entry were used to understand if the quality of fluidization can be improved. It was observed that the non-uniformity of gas distribution of circular pattern increases as the percentage open area is increased from 15 to 20; however, the gas distribution again improved for 25% open area, we would like to check this behavior again. On the other hand, for the triangular pitch arrangement of the orifice holes (which is the most commonly used arrangement in industries), the non-uniformity increases as the percentage open area is increased. The comparison of two patterns of orifice arrangement for the lower open area showed that the triangular pitch arrangement provides a better air distribution. The results also revealed that the non-uniformity in air distribution occurs mainly in central and middle part of gas distributor for the lower open area, while, for the plates with higher percentage open area, the non-uniformity is prominent near the edges of the gas distributor plate. An attempt is made to further improve the uniformity using variable open area in different regions of the plate. The simulation results of the variable opening area proved that the new design can generate a better gas distribution with more uniform velocity pattern than the designs discussed earlier, at least for the bottom entry of the gas nozzle. The simulation results also show that the gas distribution is severely affected by gas nozzle entry position. The results show that the bottom entry position of nozzle provides uniform distribution, while the side entry results in severe non-uniformity in gas distribution.
The two-phase fluidized bed simulations were also carried out to analyze the particle behavior in the presence of gas distributor with varying percentage open area and different gas inlet entry. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach is incorporated in the two-phase simulation with constant volume fraction. The simulation results showed that the particles gradually start fluidizing at lower flow time, as the flow time increases the bed expands, and the fast fluidization is observed, eventually, the particle falls back in the bed. The higher percentage open area showed a turbulent regime. For the fluidized bed with side entry, the results showed that the particles start fluidizing on the side of the chamber opposite to the entry position. In general, lower percentage open area and bottom entry of the gas nozzle should be preferred. The other parameters used were the optimized parameters from the previous work. However, a more detailed two-phase simulation should be carried out to further analyze the use of the variable open area for uniform fluidization.

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