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CFD Consultant

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Consultants

Our CFD Consultant is at the core of our engineering team at our Singapore Offices in BroadTech Engineering. We provide a broad range of comprehensive CFD consulting services which covers a broad range of Industries, such as Medical, Automotive, Building and Construction, Aerospace, and Engineering product design.

Featured Case Studies by our CFD Consultants

CFD Consultant

Fundamental Research on Advanced Gas Turbine Manufacturing  

Objective: As more power is demanded aircraft engines and industrial gas turbines, turbines have to operate under higher temperature and pressure, which requires superalloy to be manufactured into blades with columnar or single crystals structure by the directional solidification method. Some solidification defects (such as freckles) caused by natural convection exert a strong impact on turbine blades’ mechanical performance under high temperature. Such natural convection-induced defects are closely related to the melt flow form and solidification interface morphology. Therefore, the prediction and control of the melt flow become the primary issue to be solved for high-quality blades.
Methodology: The top priority was to establish multi-physics simulation approach to CFD modeling of directional solidification processing using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-Ansys Fluent.  In order to reduce or even eliminate freckles, the external traveling magnetic field was employed to control melt flow during the directional solidification process. Next, ANSYS-emag is used to simulate Lorentz force produced by traveling wave magnetic field during solidification.
Outcome: A range of magnetic fields is obtained to control solidification defects-Freckles.

Control of Vortex Shedding behind a Circular Cylinder Using a Combination of Slot & Control plates

Objective: Present numerical study aims at suppression of vortex shedding formed over a circular cylinder using different combinations of slot and control plates.
Methodology: Unsteady, two–dimensional computations are carried out for laminar, isothermal conditions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 150 using commercially available CFD software ANSYS-FluentTM.
Numerical simulations with different passive controlling methods have been carried out to reduce the vortex shedding frequency or to suppress it completely by using the configurations, such as a cylinder with control plates, and cylinder with combinations of slots and control plates.
Outcome: By carefully comparing the numerical results of all the cases, it is found that cylinder with control plates at 5° angle is the best case where the vortex shedding is completely suppressed which in turn reduces the drag force significantly.
However, in other cases, it was partially suppressed but increases the drag force due to vortex formed near to the control plates or not having any effect on vortex shedding. The results are presented in terms of vorticity and streamline contours, Cl, Cd and Strouhal number.

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Other Featured CFD Case Studies

The Effect of Fuselage Cross Section on Reusable Launch Vehicle at Subsonic Speed

Objective: In this Vehicle dynamics simulation study, experimental and computational works have been carried out to obtain the complex flow features and forces acting on the RLV fuselage and full RLV model at low subsonic speed.
Methodology: Force measurement and Oil flow visualization were made on fuselage model and full RLV at 16 m/s, 20 m/s, and 25 m/s. All experiments were conducted in a low-speed subsonic tunnel.
Qualitative and quantitative analysis has been used to observe the effect of angle of attack on aerodynamic characteristics and Reynolds number was obtained on the triangular fuselage and full RLV. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using commercial CFD software on different fuselage models and also on full RLV with the triangular fuselage.
Outcome: The computational data obtained were compared with experimental the results and are satisfactory.
From the computational fluid analysis, it could be concluded that a triangular fuselage has good aerodynamic characteristics when compared to the other cross section of fuselages.

Numerical Study on Effect of Volume Fraction of Nanoparticles on Rayleigh-Bernard Convection in Different Enclosures

Objective: Numerical investigations of Rayleigh-Bernard convection in enclosures of the different modified bottom and top surfaces filled with Au-Water Nanofluid are presented.
Methodology: This CFD flow analysis project focused on the numerical prediction of heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics inside enclosures bounded by the modified bottom and top surfaces and two periodic straight vertical walls.
Fluid flow simulations are carried out for a Rayleigh number of 6 × 104 and two aspect ratios (0.25 and 0.5) with working fluid as water (base fluid).
The same analyses are performed with the Nanofluid having Au nano-particles of the same size in order to see the effect of Nanofluid on heat transfer. The Boussinesq approximation is used in order to take density change effect in the governing equations.
The CFD thermal analysis study investigates the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction and the aspect ratio of the heat transfer.
Outcome: The results are presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines local, and average surface Nusselt numbers. Results show that the flow and isotherms are affected by the geometry shape and by the presence of nanoparticles.
It is also shown that for a fixed value of aspect ratio, the convective heat transfer is decreased for the Nanofluid when compared with that of base fluid due to an increase in thermal conductivity of the Nanofluid.

Drag Reduction in Fully Developed Boundary Layer using Micro-bubble Injection

Objective: The aim of the CFD consultancy project is to investigate numerically the interaction between a dispersed phase composed of microbubbles and a turbulent boundary layer flow.
Methodology: We use the Euler-Lagrange approach based on Direct Numerical Simulation of the continuous phase flow equations and a Lagrangian tracking for the dispersed phase. Each bubble trajectory is calculated by integrating the force balance equation accounting for buoyancy, drag, added-mass, pressure gradient, and the lift forces. The numerical method accounts for the feedback effect of the dispersed bubbles on the carrying flow.
Outcome: For the range of void fractions and Reynolds number considered in this study, we observe, that even for a relatively small bubble volume fraction injected in the near wall region, we observed a change in the flow dynamics as well as a modification of the skin friction.

Soiling Simulation for Mercedes-Benz Cars

Objective: The objective of this CFD analysis project is to develop an advanced computational tool that could simulate a vehicle under rainy conditions. During rainwater can get accumulated on the side window, Side mirror glass, and windshield. This causes a great concern for the safety of the passengers.
Methodology: Lagrangian approach is used to model rain droplets trajectories. A Eulerian approach such as Volume of Fluid and fluid film model is for tracking water on the vehicle surface.
Outcome: This project demands extensive validation with wind tunnel experiments and we have to constantly develop and improve new models to simulate complicated multiphase phenomenon.
We have taken significant steps towards simulating a full car under rainy conditions.

Aerodynamics Analysis of Light Sport Aircraft  

Objective: The objective of this project was to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics, at different flow conditions (Reynold’s number and angle of attack), of a Light sports aircraft using Ansys Fluent.  We were also required to make geometrical modifications to the current design and analyze the change in the aerodynamic characteristics.
Methodology: The results obtained here were compared with analytical results that were achieved by us in one of the previous courses. As the geometry was made available to us as an STL file, we imported the geometry and started by running simulations to find mesh independency and domain independence. To simplify the meshing process, a meshing-wrapping scrip that wraps up the whole aircraft was used.  After finding the domain and mesh independence, our team was divided and I was in-charge of designing the landing gear (as the geometry given to us didn’t have landing gear) and adding sponsons.
Outcome: As expected, it was observed that the addition of landing gear decreased the aerodynamic characteristics, however, the addition of sponsons increased the aerodynamic characteristic by a significant margin.

Comparison of Turbulence Models in Simulating Axisymmetric Jet Flow

Objective: The CFD consulting work is a comparison of various turbulence models available in ANSYS-Fluent in simulating an axisymmetric jet flow.
Methodology: A large domain is chosen for simulation of the jet flow with an intention to avoid errors due to the computational boundaries. The CFD simulations are carried out at a fixed Reynolds number for facilitating comparisons.
This work considers various first-order closure models such as standard k-epsilon model, standard k-omega model, RNG k-epsilon, Realizable variants of the k-epsilon model, SST k-omega model, and a second-order closure model namely Reynolds stress model.
The fluid dynamics simulation results are compared with reference literature to understand the applicability of models using various parameters such as inverse mean axial velocity decay, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamlines.
Outcome: Large variations are found in all the parameters between first and second-order turbulence closure models. The streamlines also show reverse flow patterns near the nozzle for second-order turbulence model.
The first-order closure models are found to be better than the second-order closure models in predicting the flow field of axisymmetric jets.

Utilised Dynamical system Theory and CFD to find large-scale solutions in the Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

Objective: The main goal of this project was to compute invariant solutions corresponding to large-scale motions and understand their relevance to a variety of fully developed turbulent shear flows.
Methodology: Direct numerical turbulent flow simulation and Large eddy simulation methodology are used to perform a simulation of high Reynolds turbulent flow in Couette, Poiseuille and boundary layer. Turbulent flow seems chaotic and composed of eddies of different length and time scale. We used data analysis method to search for eddies whose length scale corresponds to large-scale eddies. Once an initial guess is obtained we used Newton method to get converged results. We developed a solver PEANUTS which is a Newton solver based on Krylov subspace methods implemented via the PETSc and Slepc libraries to solve the linear system of equation generated.
Outcome: We successfully computed such large-scale coherent solution which was the first attempt to prove Townsend eddy hypothesis. Understanding of these structures would enable users to devise better flow control strategies to decrease aerodynamic drag in automobiles and other areas.

Aeroelastic Response of an airfoil with non-linear spring

Objective: The focus of this Fluid-structure interaction work was to determine the effect of the cubic nonlinearity on the aeroelastic response of the two degrees of freedom system.
Methodology: Discrete vortex panel method was used to determine the fluid forces on the airfoil. The results of the FSI simulation model developed in the current study is found to be analogues with the results of the other recent methods. A detail parametric study was done by varying mass ratio and airspeed and their effect on the aeroelastic response of the linear and nonlinear airfoil were observed. For hardening system at certain airspeed suddenly the response goes to a limit cycle oscillation and it never diverges like in the linear case.
Outcome: This study showed that by varying the nonlinearity of a structure we can tailor the aeroelastic response and develops after systems.

Automotive brake Disc Cooling Bench Marking Analysis Project   

Objective: Objective was to find out the temperature of the disc at the end of 10th consecutive braking cycles and compare results with test data.
Methodology: Transient flow and Transient thermal analysis were done using AcuSolve solver. Mesh model was prepared using Hypermesh. Heat flux generated due to brake pad friction was calculated analytically from pressure applied during the test and used as a boundary condition. Disc rotation was modeled with multiplier function to consider variable rpm.
Outcome: Temperature pattern predicted by CFD was very much similar to test data and variation was within 7%. Hyundai motors were happy with the results and adopted the methodology for their future projects.

Heating Analysis of a Power Switch at Elevated Temperatures

Objective: The objective of this project was to determine the time a power switch, which is fixed on a missile, can run for different elevated external air flow temperature levels, beyond that of the qualification temperature, before it starts to overheat.
Methodology: Ansys ICEM and CFX were used for this.
The geometry was given to us, and it was split in half for faster simulations. Certain assumptions were made and the boundary conditions were determined. Initially, steady-state simulations were run to determine the qualification temperature. There was an option of choosing between the aluminum outer frame and carbon fiber outer frame.
Outcome: From the steady-state simulations, it was realized that the power switch with aluminum outer frame exhibits a relatively lower temperature, and thus, the aluminum outer frame was chosen to perform the transient analysis at the different elevated external air flow temperatures levels.
It was observed that as the external air flow temperature levels were increased, the time is taken by the power switch to reach its qualification temperature decreased. It was concluded that a proper cooling system is incorporated so that the heat transfer through the power switch could be improved making it run for a longer time before overheating.

CFD Flow Analysis over an Ahmed Body

Objective: The objective of this project was to analyze the flow around an Ahmed car body fitted with NACA 0030 airfoil stilts, for two different slant angles of 25 and 35 degrees.
Methodology: The results obtained were validated with LES data results made available to us. Ansys ICEM and CFX were used for this. After modeling the Ahmed body in Ansys Design Modeler,  the mesh and domain independency was determined.
Outcome: It was concluded that the results achieved were in good agreement with the LES data except for the results of coefficient of lift. It was also concluded that the drag suddenly reduces for 35 degrees slant angle when compared with 25 degrees slant angle owing to the drastic change in drag produced.

CFD Analysis of Laminar Flow in a Pipe with Sudden Contraction of Cross-Sectional Area

The objective of this project was to investigate the laminar flow in a pipe with sudden contraction in its cross-sectional area. The results obtained were compared and validated with a given reference. This project was performed in a team of 2 students, and Ansys ICEM and CFX were used.
After modeling the pipe according to the reference geometry, mesh independency was achieved.
Simulations were performed at different Reynold’s number, and velocity profiles at various locations in the pipe were determined.
It was concluded that the results obtained were in good agreement with the results from the reference.

Oil Separator simulation using Multiphase Eulerian Method

Outcome: The objective of the study was to see the separation of the 3 different phases. This case study was used to showcase OpenFOAM multiphase capabilities.
Methodology: Considered a separator tank having a mixture of water oil and air. The surface tension force along with particle collision (drag) was modeled. The SST K-Omega model was used to model turbulence.
Outcome: The outcome was the multiphase eulerian model works fine in OpenFOAM.

Heating Analysis of Industrial Chimney Configurations

Objective: The objective of this project was to analyze the heat transfer through the industrial chimney. The chimney configuration and conditions were varied, and a set of questions regarding different chimney configurations and conditions were addressed using CFD.
Methodology: Ansys ICEM and CFX were used.
Outcome: After modeling the chimney, a mesh independency study was performed. Conclusions regarding the influence of the change in configurations and conditions were achieved.

CFD Aerodynamic Analysis of Truck

Objective: The aerodynamics of truck was analyzed for design validation and matching with experimental measurements.
Methodology: The realizable K-epsilon turbulence model was used with wall y+ of 30. The Moving Reference Frame was used to model FAN. The simulation carried out using trimmer mesh in StarCCM+.
Outcome: The drag coefficient was compared with experimental value and it showed 2% difference, also carried out hand calculations for drag due to pressure drop in porous media in addition of the profile drag of the body

Store Separation with Flying Aircraft

Objective: The objective of the study was to see the effect of the separated store on the flying aircraft. The store should not hit back on aircraft.
Methodology: Carried out an effect of propeller mounting on store and effect of the cavity on the store. Also carried out miss distance calculation of store from aircraft, also studied the effect of turbulence models inside the cavity. The ACE+/FASTRAN multiphysics codes were used to perform simulations
Outcome: The study was in agreement with the test data.

Underhood Analysis of Mower Deck Power Trailer

Outcome: The objective was to study the flow and temperature distribution in power trailer under-hood and comparison with experimental measurements.
Methodology: Heat Exchanger model in the radiator with FAN modeling was solved using OpenFOAM code.
Outcome: The mass flow rates through the radiator and the total heat rejection were in close agreement with the experimental results.

Transient flow Modelling around a Moving Robotic Panel inside a Room

The objective was to study different panel motion trajectories to decide the best possible sequence of motion which will result in minimum dust settlement over panel surface. Panel motion was modeled by moving mesh with translation and rotation function. Dust particles were modeled by particle trace utility in AcuSolve.

Conjugate Heat Transfer analysis on Cooling Die

Objective: The objective of the study was to see the temperature distributions on solids.
Methodology: The OpenFOAM code was used to perform CHT simulation, the meshing was done using snappyhex mesher.
Outcome: The temperature distributions were in close agreement with test data.

Movement of the Piston block inside Engine Cylinder

Objective: The aim was to find the time required for oil to spread on CAM, PIN and Piston Head.
Methodology: The VOF module was used to see spreading of oil inside the piston block. The oscillating wall boundary condition used to model piston motion and rotational wall boundary condition was used to model CAM motion. Realizable K-epsilon turbulence model available in OpenFOAM solver was used. The gap between piston and cylinder was about 20 microns and it was a challenge to have 4-5 cells between. Written a separate code to assign  oscillating+rotating wall boundary condition to roller movement.
Outcome: The timing measured to wet the CAM with oil was matching with other commercial code predictions.

Tank Emptying Simulation using multiphase VOF

Outcome: The objective of the study was to see the trajectory of the jet in open atmosphere. This case study was used to showcase OpenFOAM multiphase capabilities.
Methodology: Considered a tank having water with a specific height. The circular jet was open from one of the sides. Used VOF module available in OpenFOAM. Realizable K-epsilon turbulence model was considered.
Outcome: The study was in agreement with general trajectory equation.

Automotive HVAC unit modeling for all three modes (vent, foot, defrost) and calculate mass flow split and pressure drop across all duct openings 

HVAC model included all the ducts, evaporator, heater, filter and grills.  Three modes of the model were generated by rotating doors in mesh model. Steady-state incompressible flow analysis was done. Evaporator, heater, and filter were modeled using porous media method. Porous coefficients were calculated from pressure velocity test data. Mass flow split and pressure drop results were very close to customer data and deviation was less than 10%.

Fuel tank sloshing Analysis for Automotive Client

The objective was to find out whether the fuel pick up tube will starve under the given acceleration conditions. The transient multiphase analysis was done using the level set method. Initial fuel level was defined and varying acceleration was given through body force multiplier function. Results showed to pick up tube was starving. Based on the CFD outcome fuel tank baffle placement locations were redesigned to avoid starving.

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