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CFD Consulting Services 

Professional Computational Fluid Dynamics Consulting Services

CFD consulting services is at the core of what we do here at our Singapore CFD Research and Consultancy Offices in BroadTech Engineering.
We offer Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engineering consultancy services which is suitable for a comprehensive range of specific simulation scenarios and requirements.
Our CFD consultants engineers are professionally trained and skilled in using industry-leading CFD simulation analysis software tools (such as ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS CFX CFD Software, ANSYS Fluent, and ANSYS IcePak) and have accumulated over time a broad variety of applications experience in various industries, which allows us to solve all your CFD simulation needs.
 
With our complementary combination of world-class CFD analysis tools and engineering talent, BroadTech Engineering can provide you CFD consulting services via an optimal engineering approach to obtain the best answers based on your real-world engineering requirements and constraints.
Whether your CFD engineering project is technically simple or highly complex, we have the CFD service capability to help you achieve your engineering objectives.
 
We as a CFD consulting company deliver our mission objective using
  1. Providing our extensive consulting experience gathered across a broad range of industries.
  2. Providing our Research expertise and knowledge
  3. Professional training to enhance the CFD capability & sustainability of our partners and thereby maximizing the ROI value of their business.
 
All of our CFD Flow simulation theoretical models have been thoroughly put to the test by real-world verification experiments and cycle testing, which gives us allows us to have the capability to provide industry-standard CFD consultancy service to our clients.

Overview

About Us

BroadTech Engineering is a Leading Engineering Simulation and Numerical Modelling Consultancy in Singapore.
We Help Our Clients Gain Valuable Insights to Optimize and Improve Product Performance, Reliability, and Efficiency.

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Featured Case Studies

Parabolic-shaped Shelter Design Analysis

BroadTech Engineering was appointed as the ESD Consultancy for leading the CFD study of the Parabolic-shaped Shelter Design.
The objective of this Wind Flow analysis Simulation and Wind Driven Rain Simulation Study was to determine pressures generated by turbulent airflow over the structure, to provide data for the subsequent structural calculation.
 
For us as a Computational Fluid Dynamics Company to get fast results from Solving of the Wind Simulation, a 2D steady-state finite volumes approach was selected for the Wind Analysis, utilizing a pseudo-transient formulation (under-relaxation) to guarantee a suitable convergence for this extremely turbulent case. After testing many Boussinesq-type turbulence models for the Wind load Analysis, the K-omega SST model was finally selected for the Wind-Driven Rain Simulation, with a final mesh ensuring y+ lower than 10 everywhere on the shelter surface.
A coupled pressure-velocity scheme (segregated grid) was preferred for the FSI Simulation since enough RAM Resource was available and this Wind Engineering method is superior in both Solving accuracy and convergence rate to segregated methods.
As no pressure values were suggested by the available structural code, the CFD Simulation results presented by the FSI Analysis allowed the structure to be correctly calculated for wind speeds up to 30 m/s.

Simulation of Air Heater Shell Temperature

Since this equipment carcass was mainly subjected to thermal loads resulting from the air heating process, the CFD approach adopted in the Steady State Thermal Analysis allowed a thorough determination of the temperatures on the outer shell forming the enclosure.
For this Fluid Flow Simulation project, a premixed combustion model had to be used for the Steady State Thermal Analysis Simulation, to reproduce the healing process of the real machine. A flamelet library was created to reproduce the combustion process reaction heat generated, as well as the chemical reaction byproducts generation, such as CO and NOx.
For the flow itself, a steady-state, 3D model using quarter symmetry was selected for the Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation, again utilizing a finite volumes approach, node centered in this case, however. Using an unstructured mesh layered at the walls, with three levels of refinement, trials were conducted with several turbulence models, and the SST model was selected for the Heat Exchanger Simulation in favor of the more accurate, but less reliable Reynolds Stress models (7-equation). Finally, for transferring the combustion heat to the outer shell, a volumetric Monte Carlo radiation model was selected to ensure correct heat flow and distribution.
As a result, after measurements were carried out during the carrying out of our CFD consulting services, it was found that the average error was about 5%, while byproducts mass flow at the outlet was as good as 2% error (averaged).

Effects of Mist & Jet Cross-Section on Heat Transfer for a Confined Air Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate

Convective heat transfer to an impinging air jet is known to yield high local and area-averaged Nusselt numbers. Our engineers simulate this heat transfer over a wide range of study parameters, including Reynolds number and mist mass fraction, and three jet shapes: circular, half circuit, and quarter circuit by using ANSYS CFX.
Simulations conducted during our CFD consulting services show that when compared with air only, mist provides higher heat-transfer enhancements for the first two shapes but is insignificant for the third.
The area-average Nusselt number is higher by ~100% for the half-circuit jet than for the circular jet for both single-phase air and mist. With 0.5% mist, the area average Nusselt number of the circular jet is enhanced by 41% at Reynolds number 10000.

Aerodynamic Analysis & Validation by using Three Turbulence Models for Narrow Trench Configuration

Three turbulence models SST Gamma Theta,  k-w and k-e which all found in ANSYS CFX were used.  Velocity contours, pressure coefficient profiles and turbulence levels contours were discussed.
Simulation results from the CFD consulting services rendered indicate that three models calculated the cross flow boundary layer with different thicknesses. This leads to a difference in calculation each the momentum of the cross-flow fluid closer to the jet exit and cooling performance.

Comprehensive Range of Professional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Consulting Services

1. Foundational CFD

1. Foundational CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation models are built based on the ability to mathematically calculate the fluid flow using the input parameters, such as variation in particle vector velocity and net pressure values throughout the fluid volume.
CFD simulation models have been evolved to encompass more complicated multi-dimensional physics and Computational fluid analysis like combustion reactions, detailed flow turbulence (multiphase, Non-newtonian, Hypersonic), aeroacoustic, and coupling with a whole range of other physics solvers.
This original, highly validated CFD numerical models are still widely used relevant today to answer a significant number of fluid challenges when the more complicated CFD models are not necessary.
 

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Steady-state and complex transient reacting CFD flow analysis simulations
  2. Laminar, transitional, and fully turbulent with scale resolving, time-averaged, and hybrid turbulence models, such as those encountered in Ship Hydrodynamic Simulation studies.
  3. Complex accurate material models that can take into account Newtonian & Non-Newtonian viscosity, real gas compressibility, Single-phase & Multiphase effects, and Subsonic & Hypersonic flow.
  4. Optimized High-Performance Computing (HPC) capabilities including Platform MPI, Intel MPI, and MSPI technologies
  5. Mesh generation using ANSYS ICEM, ANSYS Turbogrid, ANSYS Meshing, and Fluent Meshing. This is commonly used in Ship Design Hydrodynamic simulation studies. 
2. Thermal (Heat Transfer) Simulation

2. Thermal (Heat Transfer) Simulation

CFD simulation models can be used to calculate the heat transfer through Solid and Fluid bodies through Conduction, Convection, and Radiation.
It is from these CFD simulation models that the heat transfer coefficients for virtually all types of flow conditions, such as Natural, Forced, and mixed convection flows can be derived.
More complicated heat transmission behaviors like Viscous heating, compressibility, real material models, and Material phase change (such as Evaporation, Flashing, Cavitation, and Boiling) can be also included in the CFD thermal analysis.

Related Ansys CFD simulation software features & capabilities used includes:

  1. Thermal Conduction and Convection process through solids and fluid bodies (this includes Force and natural (buoyancy-driven) convection)
  2. Fluid dynamic simulation Modelling of Phase-change at material boiling models
  3. Radiation models including P1, surface-to-surface, and ray tracing
  4. Complete energy equation, including high-Mach number compressibility effects
  5. Fluid dynamic analysis of Temperature-dependent material characteristics.
3. Rotating Machinery Simulation

3. Rotating Machinery Simulation

The rotating frame of the reference equation of the Navier-Stokes formula is used to include the rotating motion of parts such as propeller rotors, impellers, and mechanical mixers.
This analysis method does not require a remesh to accurately capture the motion coupling to the standard stationary formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations.
This simulation process allows the advanced ANSYS CFD software tool to capture the dynamic fluid motion accurately promptly.
This allows for precise performance validation, of rotating mechanisms such as CFD Analysis of Mixing tanks, Pumps, fans, compressors, and turbines.
These simulation technologies include advanced turbulent models, like the mentor laminar-transitional SST turbulent flow simulation model, which has a long historical record of validated use in CFD modeling of rotating machinery.
 
The real gas properties of the fluid can be included along with multiphase physical characteristics like Cavitation to accurately calculate on and off-design performance.

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Fully turbulent, transitional and laminar flow models for all fluid turbulent conditions, commonly used in Centrifugal Pump CFD Simulation and Centrifugal Fan CFD Analysis
  2. Complex & Dynamic material simulation models such as Real gas models and Multiphase flow models
  3. Frozen rotor, mixing (stage), transient, time transformation, and Fourier transformation interfaces between rotating and stationary domains. This is commonly used in Fan CFD Simulation Applications such as Axial Fan CFD Simulation, Jet Fan CFD Analysis Simulation, Centrifugal Pump Impeller CFD Analysis, and Centrifugal Fan CFD Analysis
  4. Meshing (TurboGrid) of Rotating machinery and Post analysis processing during Centrifugal Pump Simulation
4. Reacting Flow, Chemistry, and Combustion Simulation

4. Reacting Flow, Chemistry, and Combustion Simulation

ANSYS CFD capabilities include computation of advective and diffusive transportation of different chemical species and the resulting mixing of species.
We can also use ANSYS CFD software tools to model in precise detail complete chemistry reactions with our Chemical Reaction Design solver.
Coupling the detailed flow field and chemistry, even complex real-world chemical reactions challenges can be solved.
We are also able to accurately simulate up to thousands of chemical reactions, to enable prediction of even minor chemical species in complex real-world geometries.

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Advanced turbulent flow simulation and CFD Turbulent Modeling, including scale resolving models, to accurately capture mixing rates of mixing
  2. Analysis of Material characteristics that are dependent on Temperature, species, pressure, and multiphase flow conditions
  3. Volumetric and surface-based Chemical reactions
  4. Finite rate chemistry reaction solvers with acceleration simulation technology
  5. Numerous combustion simulation models
5. Motion and Multiphysics Simulation

5. Motion and Multiphysics Simulation

ANSYS software tools are widely recognized in the CFD simulation arena as the industry-leading multiphysics simulation modeling toolset.
They allow for accurate and robust coupling between the different physics modeling tools.
These advanced tools enable BroadTech Engineering to model a wide variety of multiphysics and multidisciplinary simulation models.

These various Examples of Multiphysics interactions can include

1. Simple Coupling of solid body thermal temperatures for purpose of material pre-stressing
2. Changing fluid volume due to rigid motion of solid bodies
3. Tightly coupled flexible deformation of the solid bodies reacting to the spatial-varying and time-dependent fluid pressure loads and shear loading forces.

 

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Rigid body motion analysis
  2. Detection of contact forces between bodies and condition-based events, such as those encountered in Ship Hydrodynamics Simulation, where the Marine Vessel Designs are optimized for minimal drag resistance using Numerical Ship Hydrodynamic Modeling methods.
  3. 3D Meshing Adaption technologies, which allows for features such as Mesh moving, Mesh geometry morphing, Re-meshing
  4. Thermal, Acoustic, and Structural coupling. Based on both tightly coupled and decoupled simulation modeling Methodologies.
6. Free Surface Simulation

6. Free Surface Simulation

Using the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical model, we are able to use ANSYS CFD simulation to predict the location of the free surface interface position and its interaction behavior between two or more material phases.
To allows for the concurrent modeling of numerous multiphase flow conditions, other simulation input parameters such as Inter-phase transfer of mass (phase change), Species, Energy, Momentum, and Surface tension, can also be included in the CFD simulation.

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

● Turbulent flow damping at free surface interface
● Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase simulation model of Level Set coupled surface tension
● Open-channel flow wave and options for modeling numerical beach boundary condition
7. Multiphase Flow Simulation

7. Multiphase Flow Simulation

The addition of Multiphase flow numerical simulation models allows the calculation of various complex Multiphase flow geometry conditions such as 
  1. Liquid-gas Flow  
  2. Liquid-liquid Flow  
  3. Granular Flow  
  4. Separated Flow  
  5. Dispersed Flow  (eg. for Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling Applications)
Even more advanced physics can be included in the Simulation, such as inter Phase transition, Chemistry, Breaking up of the dispersed phase, and variation in Flow regime.

Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Tracking of Particle and numerous advanced physics. This includes physics such as Breakup, Collision, Contact, Coalescence, Phase change, and Combustion reactions
  2. Multiphase flow conditions with Dense liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, and granular flow
  3. Single and Multiphase flow conditions characterized by Porous media flow 
  4. Multiphase phase change simulation models, including Cavitation, Boiling, Condensation, Wall boiling, Flashing, and  Species transfer.
8. Optimization Simulation

8. Optimization Simulation

The evaluation of design changes is a strength of CFD numerical simulation in general.
Once an initial simulation model is solved, subsequent resolving with new input conditions and geometry conditions simply involves updating the CFD numerical model and rerunning the CFD simulation process.
BroadTech Engineering has a comprehensive suite of advanced simulation optimization tools (such as Non-parametric optimization tools) that can intelligently and accurately guide the optimization of an existing design or process.

 Related Ansys CFD software features & capabilities used:

  1. Use of parametric and non-parametric optimization.
    This is especially commonly used in Building Performance Simulation Applications performed by ESD Consultants and Architect Planners.
    Example application includes Various Types of Ventilation CFD Simulation Analysis, such as Mechanical Ventilation Analysis Simulation, Natural Ventilation CFD Simulation, Air Flow Analysis Simulation, Air Dispersion Modeling Simulation, HVAC CFD Simulation
  2. Simulation Airflow Modelling & Analysis of System Design Sensitivity.
    Example application involves the use of CFD for building performance applications such as Natural ventilation Simulation Studies, HVAC CFD Consulting Projects, Cooling Tower CFD simulation, and Data Center CFD Analysis
  3. Optimization of an existing design to enhance Robustness. Example Architectural Building CFD Simulation to optimize Building aerodynamics
  4. Adjoint simulation solver technology popularly used by Many major ESD Consultancy in Singapore
  5. Response surface, direct, and hybrid parametric optimization, often used in Water Treatment Simulation Analysis
  6. Ship Hydrodynamics Simulation Studies for Purpose of Ship Optimization – Hydrodynamic Simulation of Ship Vessel design inorder to Perform Ship Trim Optimization projects, Ship Propeller Simulation Modeling, Green Water Loading, and optimize the Ship Hull Design
  7. Performing of Cavitation CFD to simulate the Performance of High-speed Propellers in centrifugal pumps and Marine propulsion Propellers. This type of CFD analysis is popularly done Marine propeller CFD Simulation and Simulation of Impeller Propeller
CFD Consulting Services

1. Powerful CFD Simulation Software Tools

2. CFD Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

2. CFD Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

3. CFD projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

3. CFD projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

4. Proven Track Record

4. Proven Track Record

5. Affordable

5. Affordable

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

Other Featured CFD Consulting Case Studies

Multiphase Analysis – Diesel Engine Coolant Jacket.

Objective:

We were tasked by our client to carry out CFD Modeling Services to predict the amount of air trapped in the Automotive Cooling jacket after the coolant is filled. This CFD Design project was initiated because Having air in the coolant path will lead to poor heat dissipation performance from the engine.
 

Methodology:

  1. The transient volume of fluid (VOF) analysis approach is used in the Heat Transfer Simulation to solve the physics when performing the CFD Analysis Services.
  2. The coolant flow path is extracted and the geometry simplification is performed from the original CAD geometry, to reduce the complexity of the problem.
  3. The porous regions are modeled as the weighted average porous region to calculate both air and water interface restrictions in the Multiphysics Simulation.
  4. Under the action of gravity, the coolant (water) is initialized and feed into the coolant flow path in uniform mass flow rate, the air inside the path is removed through the outlet through pressure outlet boundary conditions.
  5. Implicit Unsteady, Eulerian Multiphase, Volume of Fluid (VOF) physics models are used for the Fluid Flow analysis.
  6. A time step study is performed as part of the Transient Thermal Analysis to get reasonable time steps to capture the physics properly.
  7. The Thermal simulation is performed until the convergence achieved. Each time step(s) the pictures are captured and created the animation to observe the cooling filling process. For the quantitative approach, the air volume and water volume in the system are completely monitored during the Multiphase Thermodynamics Simulation.

Outcome & Results:

The Thermal Analysis simulation provides the amount of air trapped in the system in both quantitatively and qualitatively, it helps the designer to optimize the coolant jacket design.

Aerodynamics CFD – Aircraft External Aerodynamics – Airbus

Objective:

To perform aerodynamics Simulation analysis by replacing any of the components such as fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, etc. The lift and drag coefficient are calculated using Airfoil Simulation for different Mach numbers, the angle of attacks for the given new design and the same is compared with the baseline simulation.
 

Background:

The baseline model is validated by us serving the role of a CFD Services Company in collaboration with subject matter experts from the airbus team for the different product line and the best practice procedures are documented, the design changes study need to be performed as per the procedures.
 

Methodology:

  1. The new components are replaced in the baseline model and the mesh topology should be modified to capture the geometry features properly.
  2. The Ansys ICEM CFD HEXA block meshing tool is used. The mesh refinements and the Y+ values used in the Fluid Flow Simulation are maintained as per the Reynolds number using EGAT tools.
  3. The mesh cut sections are prepared at various locations and compared with the baseline models to maintain the quality.
  4. The prepared models use in the Fluid Flow Simulation will be solved in the HPC environments for the given Mach numbers and the angle of attacks.
  5. The K-Omega turbulence model is used for solving physics when performing the Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Simulation.
  6. The captured results are plotted in the comprehensive tool along with the baseline results.
  7. The simulation results are presented in front of the expert’s committee in the Airbus after each design change.

Outcome & Results:

The steady-state CFD analysis is performed and calculated the lift-drag co-efficient as per the Airbus procedure and presented the results in front of the expert panel.

CFD Simulation of Transient Aerodynamic Effects on Bluff Body Yawing Motion.

Objective:

The objectives of the CFD consultancy project are investigating the transient aerodynamic behavior of a simplified automotive model by using CFD Aerodynamics simulation in yawing motion. The transient aerodynamic loads (side force and yaw moment) of a simplified automotive body with a different A-pillar slant angle of 14°, 20°, 25°, and 30° were compared with steady-state loads in yaw condition.
RANS and URANS based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to simulate both steady-state and transient-state flow visualization of vehicle models at a yaw angle range of +/-10° and up to 40 m/s. UDF is used to control the transient motion of the test model in CFD simulation.
Besides from coefficient data, vortices visualization and pressure contour results are analyzed. CFD Analysis findings suggest that the intensity of transient effects experienced by the vehicle body in yaw condition is affected by several factors mainly due to the lag movement of vortices, following by the changes of the strength of leeward-side vortex and A-pillar vortex. A-pillar cause less significant transient effect compared to C-pillar in yawing motion.

CFD analyses of Catalytic converter (Exhaust hot end)

Two main criteria in designing catalytic converter are back pressure and flow distribution on the inlet. Increasing backpressure beyond the acceptable level will damage an engine and also flow distribution on the inlet is important to reduce NOx to the permitted level.
So CFD Air Flow Analysis simulation is vital in optimizing the design to achieve the best possible results.
Numerical modeling for this project was performed by Ansys Fluent. Considering the difficulty of the model exact geometry of the substrate in the catalytic converter, the substrate was modeled as porous media. One of the major difficulties encountered during the Airflow Modeling was to accurately model the porous parameters. Hence several experiments were performed to model the substrate as accurate as possible.
The results generated from the CFD Simulation were closed to experimental data provided by the PSA Group.
This CFD Simulation and modeling project was part of the RFQ process to design and mass-produce catalytic converter for Citroen C3. The final design had been confirmed by the PSA engineering team and IranDelco won the project to produce 500,000 parts for the PSA plant in Kashan.

3D Atmospheric reentry CFD simulation:

Objective:

To simulate the pressure, velocity, and temperature around a space capsule re-entering the atmosphere.

Approach:

Defined a cubicle control volume around the capsule with medium grain mesh option, the material selected: air with an ideal gas model, reference pressure: 1 atm, velocity: Mach 10. Heat transfer output option: total energy with high-speed compressible wall heat transfer model.

Results:

The contour showed high pressure and low velocity at the base of the capsule facing static air. Pressure contour also showed the shockwave is formed away from the body, and so high temperature is at the edge of the shockwave, and not the body itself.

Multiphase Analysis –Passive implants stent temperature raise in 3T MRI conditions.

Objective:

This Multiphysics Modeling project involves Estimating the Thermal temperature rise on the passive implants stents when they are subjected to an MRI scan.
Background:
FDA has defined ASTM F2182-11a to evaluate the performance of the stent under the MRI environment. It describes the test procedure to estimate the temperature-induced on the stents due to MRI scan heating. A virtual test setup is modeled using modern computational Fluid Analysis techniques to simulate the test conditions using COMSOL multi-physics solvers and validated with ASTM test results to propose FDA that the computational technique can be used to validate the performance of the stent under MRI condition to reduce cost and time.

Methodology:

  1. The transient multiphysics approach is used by solving the electromagnetic wave and the heat transfer physics to predict the temperate raise.
  2. The stent is modeled using a parametric approach to vary the length, the diameter, the spiral thickness, etc.,
  3. The 3T environment is modeled by designing the bridge cage coil and validated using the literature data by solving only the Maxwell equation to get a uniform electric field and the 3Tesla magnetic field strength.
  4. The ASTM F2182-11a titanium rod text procedure results are taken as a baseline, the CFD simulation has been performed and temperature rise is calculated and compared with the ASTM results.
  5. In the same condition, the newly designed stents are replaced and predicted the temperature rise in the stents.

Outcome:

The developed computational approach results are in line with ASTM F2182-11a standards. Hence it is concluded that the computational approach can be used for validating the new stent design.

On Capturing Pitch-Up Phenomena on a Fighter Aircraft

Computational Aeroacoustics and Aerodynamics Simulations were carried out using flow solver HiFUN and ANSYS-Fluent. The methodology used is similar to that used in the Automotive industry for performing Vehicle Dynamics Simulation.

Objective:     

  1. Estimation of aerodynamic performance characteristics of a Fighter Aircraft at transonic flight speed
  2. Capturing the Pitch-Up phenomena on a Fighter aircraft at transonic speed.
  3. Finding out the characteristic behavior of the Vortices on Fighter aircraft wing at transonic speed.
 

Approach: 

Grid Generation and Solver Setup for the Airflow Simulation:
  1. A hybrid unstructured grid was generated with appropriate mesh refinements on the wing surface to capture the vortices.
  2. Full body geometry was considered with fully loaded conditions (all stores are attached)
  3. Steady RANS simulations are carried out with S-A and SST turbulence models. Roe/HLLC scheme with second-order spatial accuracy was used.
Green-Gauss based reconstruction procedure was used along with limiters. All simulations convergence level was ensured with proper CFL number and relaxation factors.
 

Conclusions/Observations: 

  1. The Pith-Up characteristics of a Fighter Aircraft were studied and It’s compared with wind tunnel data.
  2. Grid resolution on capturing the vortices plays an important role to capture the aircraft Pitch-Up.
  3. Using the Higher-Order scheme with RANS does a better job than using Euler Simulations.
  4. Numerical Stability issues were found while using Higher-order schemes to capture the Pitch Up due to massive flow separation and Shockwaves.
So choosing schemes and CFL numbers to be appropriate to ensure the desired convergence.

Numerical CFD simulation of single and multiphase supersonic swirl flow inside the convergent-divergent nozzle 

For decades, abrasive flow blasting has been used for surface cleaning. As with all surface cleaning methods, of course, the challenge is to achieve effective cleaning without damaging the surface.
In the abrasive flow process, the supersonic airflow is made to accelerate the suspended solid media particles transferring the momentum of the particles to a surface force creating the cutting/cleaning action. Therefore, the crucial performance parameters are those associated with the jet. However, the exhaustive literature search was unable to find much relevant reported work on using CFD simulation to improve the efficiency and energy consumption of the sandblasting process. It is believed that the inherent problems associated with the analysis of multiphase flow may be one reason for this.
Numerical modeling and Multiphase Flow Simulation was used to simulate both single and multiphase supersonic swirling flow inside and outside the nozzle. This Simulation method is similar to that commonly use in Jet Fan CFD Analysis
Eulerian and Lagrangian multiphase simulations were performed and it has been shown that for abrasive particles, the Lagrangian model (DPM) provides more accurate results. FLUENT, Simcenter STAR-CCM+ Software, and OpenFOAM, CFD software were used to solve governing equations of the flow with RANS turbulence modeling.
This CFD Turbulent Modeling research Project has found that the swirl effect reduces the shock cells’ strength inside the nozzle and increases the damping ratio on shock waves. The shock structure and separation zone for the non-swirl nozzle simulations was symmetrical; however, the nozzle with the helical insert showed a very complex unsteady and asymmetric flow pattern. Additionally, it was observed that the swirl flow inside the nozzle creates larger separation zones at the exit of the nozzle which helps to improve the mixing feature. Furthermore, in this type of flow, it was shown that, even if the nozzle was choked, increasing the inlet pressure increases the mass flow rate.

Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) simulation

Objective:

CFD Fluid flow simulation of a UUV to estimate drag force was included as part of the FSI Analysis Services rendered to our Client.

Approach:

Defined fine mesh around the body with a 3D control volume, the pressure of water taken at the depth of 25 meters, velocity: variable from 3 m/s to 8 m/s.

Outcome & Results:

As estimated theoretically by our FSI Consulting Engineers, the drag force on the body increases as velocity increases in a laminar flow. It was found that the drag exponentially increases with turbulent flow conditions, drag force is not dependent on pressure, but only density.

The viscous turbulent flow field in a fuel injector nozzle control valve (NCV)

Objective:

The objective of the CFD Simulation study is to Analyses the three-dimensional viscous turbulent flow field in a fuel injector nozzle control valve (NCV) to understand the physics of the complex flow and cavitation phenomena in a key region of the valve. To understand the benefit of using the Wall Modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) approach over an Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Realizable k-ε (URANS RKE) approach to resolve the turbulence spectrum for the eddies that contribute the most to the cavitation risk.
 

Methodology/Approach:

The commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent was used for the CFD Consulting study. WMLES is an alternative to classical LES and reduces the stringent and Reynolds number (Re) dependent grid resolution requirements of classical well-resolved LES. WMLES method allows significant computational gains over classical LES, especially in the moderate to high Re, wall-bounded flow geometries within a diesel injector. WMLES requires that the mesh and time-step sizes are sufficiently fine to resolve the energy-containing eddies. A precursor RKE RANS simulation was run to assess the local mesh requirement for the WMLES model. For the precursor RANS simulation, 2 million hexahedral cells were used.
The turbulent kinetic energy spectrum that WMLES will resolve can be assessed based on the precursor RANS simulation. Based on the precursor RANS results, the mesh was refined in the critical zones so that around 70% of the turbulence spectrum was resolved in the entire domain. The new WMLES mesh had a cell count of 3.5 million high-resolution hexahedral cells (generated using Ansys ICEM CFD). Once the new WMLES mesh has been generated, the assessments for the time stepping were made. A time step of 0.02µs was selected for the WMLES model which would be sufficient to capture the flow dynamics captured with the refined mesh.
For the WMLES simulation, the following quality check indicator settings were met, i.e. the local CFL number < 1, Y+ < 1.0 in critical regions, and the local sub-grid scale eddy viscosity ratio < 10 (except a few regions).
Multiphase flow with diesel liquid and vapor (mixture model) was considered for the CFD Simulation Study. Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model was used in the study.
 

Outcome and Conclusions:

 In the vicinity of the NCV seat, the rapid drop in pressure creates high-frequency turbulent vortices that lead to complex interactions with the fuel vapor. An understanding was gained on the coupled influence of turbulence on cavitation during NCV operation.
The present CFD Consulting study showed that vapor formation, propagation, and collapse leading to cavitation erosion under the presence of turbulent vortices are more accurately captured using WMLES (SRS model) compared to using URANS RKE.
Results from the current CFD Simulation study establish the fact that the modeling methodology adopted here reliably predicts a detailed cavitation phenomenon and serves as a useful tool to evaluate and mitigate against the risk of cavitation related damage, even before the prototyping and testing of the component. Using a URANS model would lead to a design being poorly optimized and incorrectly evaluated for the risk of cavitation erosion. URANS RKE is as accurate as WMLES for hydraulic force prediction and therefore URANS RKE remains the preferred method when cavitation risk is not being evaluated. The WMLES modeling methodology shown in the present study can be integrated into the design optimization process specifically when evaluating cavitation risk, alongside existing hydraulic performance and durability evaluations.
There is a significantly computational penalty in using WMLES over URANS RKE. But when being used to assess the risk of cavitation erosion, this computational penalty becomes insignificant relative to the alternative of manufacturing prototypes and subjecting them to endurance testing.
Implementing CFD Simulation into the design process has allowed the mechanisms of cavitation occurring in this valve to be identified and the design modified to prevent these mechanisms leading to erosion with no loss of hydraulic performance.

CFD Simulation of Radial Compressor with modified inlet:

The CFD Consulting project was aimed at improving the performance of Radial Compressor at higher RPMs. The impeller contains 8 main blades and 8 splitter blades. At higher RPMs, the flow at the blade tips near the shroud begins to separate resulting in blade tip stall which affects the overall pressure ratio of the compressor. To overcome this issue an active jet of air is plunged at the blade tips. The flow is simulated and the appropriate jettison points on the blade, as well as the pressure ratio, are measured in Simcenter Star CCM+. The Harmonic Balance (HB) method of the software is utilized to CFD simulation due to the periodicity of the compressor. HB method requires only a single flow passage between two consecutive blades to simulate the entire compressor, thus reducing the flow domain size to 1/8th of the entire compressor. The topology assumes the shape of the compressor and is set between 2 main blades on the sides containing a splitter blade and impeller and shroud on the top and bottom and is made to revolve about the universal Z-axis. The inlet and outlet are extended from the impeller eye and exit respectively and are kept stationary to avoid flow reversing due to the rotational component of velocity. Thus two sliding mesh interfaces are made between the rotating blade passage domain and the stationary inlet and outlet domains. Near the interface between the inlet domain and the rotating domain, a small circular jet inlet aiming the blade tip is created on the fixed domain.
The flow domains are meshed in Star CCM+ mesher and since the flow is swirling, polyhedral elements are used as they have good orthogonality and they also confirm the blade and splitter curvature well. The prism cell layers are generated with a y+ = 1 as required by the high wall treatment of the k-ω turbulence model used for the CFD simulation. The interfaces have uniform discretization to maintain cell continuity. Moving wall boundary condition is applied to the blade, splitter and impeller base while the shroud and the fixed domains are assigned with stationary walls. Mass flow inlet boundary conditions are used at the compressor and jet inlets while free stream boundary is used at the compressor outlet.
The CFD simulation is initialized with air as the working medium, constant rotor RPM and non-zero velocity in the domains. The unsteady simulation is run with a CFL number of 5 for 400 time-steps till convergence is achieved at each time step. The pressure ratio is monitored with respect to time. The flow scenes showed fully attached flow at the blade tips even at higher RPMs. The pressure ratio with respect to RPM of the compressor with the active jet is compared with that of the conventional compressor. The pressure ratio of the conventional compressor falls at RPMs higher than 65,000 whereas the pressure ratio of the compressor with active jet didn’t fall before 80,000 RPM.

Transient CFD study of a heavy-duty diesel injector non-return valve (NRV)

Objective:

Carry out a 3D transient CFD Simulation study of a heavy-duty diesel injector non-return valve (NRV) opening and closing event to predict the performance and efficiency of the valve.
 

Methodology/Approach:

The commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent was used for the study. Ansys Fluent dynamic meshing was used to simulate valve motion.
URANS approach and K-E realizable turbulence model was used in the study. 120° sector model is used for the study as the model is 1/3rd symmetric. The model had a cell count of 1.5 million hexahedral cells generated using ICEM CFD.
Force driven user-defined function (UDF) was used to calculate non-return valve velocity. The UDF outputs valve velocity based on various forces (hydrodynamic, magnetic, spring) acting on it.
Single-phase diesel liquid was used for the study. The steady-state CFD result was used as an initial guess for transient CFD simulation.
 

Outcome & Conclusions:

The study conducted by our CFD consultant predicted valve seat impact velocities and bouncing events during operation. The squeeze film mechanism responsible for valve damping was predicted and understood.
Pressure waves generated due to squeezing film, rail pressure and plunger velocity combinedly result in valve bounce. As the valve approaches seat fluid pressure near the seat gap increases drastically due to squeezing film effect. This high-pressure fluid in the seat gap escapes to the upstream region initiating pressure waves. These pressure waves keep propagating between the upstream and downstream domains and interact with the plunger velocity (other moving components of the valve). The valve stabilizes (bouncing dampens) after a certain time as these pressure waves damped out.
The study helped to assess the performance and durability of the valve. Based on the CFD results, design modifications were suggested to improve the durability of the valve.

Thermal Comfort Simulation Passenger Vehicle Cabin 

Background

The design of a passenger vehicle should ensure occupant comfort as much as the vehicle on-road performance. In this aspect occupant, thermal comfort is a very important concern in the design of a passenger vehicle. However, the tendency to use more glass in vehicle styling, tightening fuel-economy constraints, the change to less efficient environmentally safe refrigerants and reduced condenser airflow, particularly at idle, are significant challenges to achieve occupant thermal comfort. In such scenarios, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation models are being increasingly used to characterize and optimize the thermal performance of the Passenger Car Air conditioning system.
An important part of the car air conditioning system is LOUVERS, responsible for directing the hot/cold conditioned airflow in a cabin for effective thermal comfort. The passenger car cabin module consists of HVAC Louver, Instrument panel, steering column, manikin, and seats. The current HVAC CFD Analysis study describes HVAC louver optimization by comparing the design parameters of various louvers using CFD in a passenger car.
 

Objective

In this study, a CFD simulation model of car cabin is used to assess the effect of different types of louver designs of a passenger car vehicle.
Starting from CAD data, a detailed model of the vehicle cabin is idealized for thermal comfort analysis involving radiation, solar loads and heat propagation through different materials of complex shapes. Subsequently, different cases of louver design parameters will be analyzed using CFD Simulation to assess its dependence on the entire HVAC performance. The CFD Modeling approach used is similar to that used in HVAC Simulation Optimization Studies and Data Center CFD Analysis Projects

Methodology

In this HVAC Simulation study, a CFD model of a car cabin module was modeled along with the HVAC louver. A car cabin module consists of Instrument panel, steering column, manikin, and seats. As the CFD analysis involves radiation, solar loads and heat propagation through different materials of complex shapes, an extensive amount of data is considered including azimuth and altitude for the solar loads at the specified location and time.
Radiation properties such as reflectivity, emissivity, and transmitivity of cabin enclosure materials are considered in this HVAC CFD analysis. To monitor the temperature values in the cabin, probes are placed around the manikin according to specified guidelines. The major advantage of this CFD Simulation approach is it will result in the saving of time and resource requirements as compared to Physical experiments.
The geometry idealization was done using hyper mesh software and CFD Analysis using Star CCM+ commercial CFD code.

CFD Analysis consists of different stages as follows.

Ø Pre-Processing- Geometry clean-up, Geometry idealization, Mesh generation, CFD analysis case setup
Ø Processing- Running the solution using the CFD codes
Ø Post Processing- Result interpretation and countermeasure proposal
 

CAE Tools Used

  1. Hypermesh – Pre-processing
  2. Simcenter StarCCM+ – CFD Simulation/ Post Processing
 

Outcome & Conclusion

In this CFD consulting study, three cases are considered including a baseline case. Apart from Air Quality Modeling, the other major analysis objective was to determine the best case among the pre-identified cases by varying the louver design.
A baseline CFD Simulation case was initially analyzed and the analysis settings and procedures are set as a benchmark for further cases based on the test rig setup.
Another two cases are identified for design iterations to check the best thermal comfort of the cabin. Considering all the CFD Simulation cases, the design which showed a low average temperature on the manikin surfaces is considered as the best case for the proper thermal comfort.
Summary
The louver installation parametric study was done to assess the dependence of the louver design parameters on the car air conditioner. The CFD analysis was performed to understand the flow characteristics and nature of the flow to provide detailed information on flow variables and its implications for the upcoming design iterations. Various designs of louvers are tried using CFD simulation to obtain different temperatures on the manikin surfaces and finally, the best case was chosen for further study.

Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Estimation on Heavy Lift Space Launch Vehicle at Flight Conditions

(Single & Multi-Species Simulations)

 
For all CFD simulations were carried out using flow solver HiFUN (http://sandi.co.in/home/products/hifun)

Objective: 

  1. Estimation of Unsteady Pressure Loads on the Heavy Lift Space Launch Vehicle at Transonic/Supersonic flight conditions using Steady/Unsteady CFD Simulations (RANS, URANS, DES)
  2. Simulations should be carried out with and without Boosters (ON/OFF) conditions for a given Species.
  3. Unsteady Pressure Loads needs to be extracted at 800 port locations and to be compared with wind tunnel and flight data
  4. Carry out grid sensitivity study and time-step sensitivity study to establish the best practices to use for further analysis
  5. The optimum grid needs to be generated for analysis and Simulations should be carried out using flow solver HiFUN for a physical time of 1.2 Seconds.
 

Approach: 

Grid Generation Strategy:
After a literature survey and in-house experience in handling CFD Turbulent simulations for such configurations,
the initial optimal grid was generated. The grid size was about 100 Million volumes. The unsteady pressure loads are highly non-linear and have localized effects that can excite frequency that can damage the Launch vehicle structure.
So proper care was taken while generating the grid with Turbulent Flow Simulation Modeling to capture the local unsteady effects. 
  1. Hybrid Unstructured grids were generated for steady/unsteady simulations
  2. Steady Simulations were carried out using flow solver HiFUN for flight conditions and steady pressure is computed.
  3. This solution can go as an initial solution for an unsteady simulation.
  4. It’s a RANS simulation with the Spalart-Allmaras(S-A) turbulence model. Second-order spatial discretization with Green-Gauss based reconstruction was employed.
  5. Unsteady Simulations are carried out with Steady state solution as an initial guess. Second-order spatial discretization with Green-Gauss based reconstruction was employed. Second order Backward Euler time integration procedure was used for time.
  6. Time-Step was chosen based on the simulation frequency and simulations are carried out with HiFUN Unsteady solver with Duel-time stepping procedure. The minimum convergence criteria at Dual iteration was ensured for a proper convergence.
  7. Based on previous simulations results, the successive grids were generated and a time-step sensitivity study also done.

Conclusions/Observations: 

  1. Unsteady and Steady pressures are computed on the surface of the Launch vehicle and were compared with wind tunnel and flight data. It was observed that more than half the ports data were comparable with flight and wind tunnel data.
  2. A set of procedures were established to carry out the future CFD studies for the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle along with grid sensitivity and time-step sensitivity studies.
  3. Based on the unsteady pressure data, all local frequencies were calculated. This is one of the important parameter used for structural design modifications.
  4. Finally, It’s a computationally very intensive study due to handling such a big grid size and also Unsteady simulations along with a Multi-Species. The computational requirements for such studies also recorded. 

Why Choose Us 

We understand that identifying and engaging the right CFD consulting service provider for your engineering project can be daunting sometimes as you want to have a sense of confidence in their professional recommendations.
Some of the factors that you have to consider includes

1. Capabilities of the CFD consulting company
2. Experience of CFD consultants
3. Complexity of your project’s CFD computational engineering requirements

The above areas of consideration allow you to determine if a CFD company is the best fulfills your project needs & requirements.

Accurate Interpretation of CFD Results Data

In the interpretation of CFD data results, the experience is crucial in discerning whether one has a false result or a real result that can be taken into production.
We strongly believe that this is our competitive edge and a proven value proposition that we can provide to our CFD consulting clients.

Features & Benefits of FEA Consulting

An actual physical engineering test can reveal you of an occurrence of a failure in a product or structure, however, this inefficient testing and development process is often Costly, takes up precious product development time and in many cases, does not really reveal the real cause of the failure.
With our FEA consulting services, we can help you to answer to several questions that a real-world test simply can’t.
This includes

1. Identification of Areas with Excess Material to save on unnecessary material and weight.
Having an iterative and intelligent FEA analysis process which helps engineers to push the boundaries to optimize engineering designs that maximize strength and minimize cost
2. Determination of the product structure’s current Margin of safety

1. Powerful ANSYS FEA Simulation Software Tools

Our FEA engineering consultants engineers employ some of the industry’s most advanced analysis tools which are widely recognized as the best-in-class in the engineering simulation industry.
This includes ANSYS finite element analysis FEA software Tools such as

– ANSYS Mechanical
– ANSYS Multiphysics
– ANSYS nCode DesignLife
– ANSYS LS-DYNA

2. FEA Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

Our team of FEA consulting engineers consultants you will be working with has advanced degrees and deep expertise across a wide range of industries such as Automotive machinery, Biomedical, Aerospace engineering, Building & Construction, chemical equipment, Power Generation, Oil and gas, and Consumer Electronics.

3. FEA projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

Throughout the entire life of the FEA consulting project, our FEA consulting engineers will work closely with you to understand your analysis requirements to ensure that the right finite element analysis approach is adopted.

4. Proven Track Record

For several years, our FEA consulting services have been relied upon to provide answers to some of the most challenging Structural and Thermal Analysis projects.
From basic part component analysis to total end-to-end FEA analysis processes, we are able to deliver reliable insights solutions that help you to solve real-world challenges.

5. Affordable

Our Finite Element Analysis (FEA) consultancy services offer you an engineering analysis solution that is accurate, timely and cost-effective
Our affordable analysis services allow smaller-scale companies to enjoy the benefit of a professional Finite Element Analysis solution without incurring a heavy cost of employing a full-time in-house FEA engineer.

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

Our FEA consulting services does not just end with the results. To ensure that there is a complete knowledge transfer at the end of the analysis, we conduct comprehensive training to ensure there is no doubt on the understanding of the Finite Element results.

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If you have any questions or queries, our knowledgeable and friendly technical staff will be happy to answer any of your queries and assist to understand more about your needs and requirements

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