CFD Modelling

Professional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling

CFD modeling is today considered by most CFD companies as one of the most precise Numerical modeling methods for the analysis of fluid flow challenges.
Our CFD consulting engineers at our Singapore Office in BroadTech Engineering uses a range of computer CFD modeling software tools to perform Numerical Fluid Flow Analysis in order to solve complex fluid flow problems based upon the goals and objective of our client’s specific project.
During the rendering of our CFD consulting services, a high level of detail can be represented in the model build and will subsequently be refined and relaxed to achieve an optimum balance between visual CFD modeling representation and computational fluid analysis accuracy.

Featured CFD Modeling Case Studies

Thermal Comfort Mapping

Thermal Comfort Mapping

We remodeled the mall building using Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and needed to address the thermal comfort level reached in some spots under the strong prevailing winds in the region. The findings from the Natural Ventilation Simulation will be used as part of the inputs for the HVAC CFD Consulting Project, where HVAC CFD Simulation will be performed to optimize the Building energy performance.
A dynamic thermal comfort analysis and Ventilation CFD study was carried out by our CFD Consultants and ESD Consultants in BroadTech Engineering, along with Wind Simulation and radiation analysis in the terrace areas.
Different set-ups of windscreens and flowerpots were designed and evaluated using HVAC CFD Analysis by performing Numerical CFD Flow Simulation in this Building Performance Simulation project to maximize Indoor comfort conditions for the occupants
(The scope of work for the HVAC Simulation study includes the study of Building greenhouse effect, Data Center CFD analysis, climatization of spaces, Wind-Driven Rain and circular wind currents created by the mall´s circular shape).

Double Glazing Facade

CFD Analysis of Double Glazing Facade

Our Building CFD client is developing new pre-fabricated modules to build new sustainable and energy-efficient buildings and approached us for our CFD consultancy services to perform Ventilation Analysis in addition to Wind load analysis Simulation.
An energy efficiency CFD Design study on glazed and double facades was carried out in conjunction with Wind-Driven Rain Simulation to obtain the thermal characterization of the module design.
In the Natural Ventilation CFD analysis, Solar irradiation and stack effect probed themselves the most relevant factors to be addressed in local climates.
The findings from the HVAC CFD Simulation study were used for optimizing the Wind Load analysis and Jet fan CFD Analysis which was done on the Ductless ventilation system. 
The scope of the study for the CFD Modeling services rendered also obtained information about the usability of photovoltaic materials installed on the solar screens.

What is CFD

CFD or computational fluid dynamics is the analysis of the Fluid flow of liquids and gases in and around specifically designed objects under study. It also involves the numerical modeling and CFD simulation of thermal behaviors via CFD Thermal analysis.
The equations governing fluid dynamics is complex and is often unsolvable manually by hand. However, through the use of CFD simulation software methods and algorithms, it has made it possible for CFD services to accurately predict the Fluid flow behavior of liquid and gases as well as its interaction with the engineering product designed.

Why CFD Simulation

The CFD analysis is an important part of the CFD engineering development process as it helps to boost the energy efficiency of design performance, reduce the risk of malfunction and helps to accelerate innovation in engineering design. Its importance can seem in the Building Performance industry, where CFD methodologies and technology have been heavily used in enhancing overall building energy consumption, by performing studies such as Data Center CFD Analysis studies, Wind-Driven Rain on Louver Designs, as well as Cooling Tower CFD Simulation Studies.  
By having to understand the physical forces that affect the fluid dynamics simulation, you can make critical design decisions that can significantly reduce energy expenditure and enhance performance efficiency.

Expanding Role of CFD Modelling

The role that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation tool play in the engineering design process is constantly expanding in its application in a wide range of Engineering design and Fluid dynamics Analysis in the recent years.
Because the virtual test simulation is conducted under a controlled environmental condition and the amount of test data it can provide is much more comprehensive than any complex physical model test.
With the increasing computational power of today’s computer hardware, it has made CFD modeling services provided by CFD Services Companies a highly attractive alternative to physical laboratory testing. This has seemed application of CFD at a larger Macro-climatic scale in the area of Wind Engineering for Building Aerodynamics, Air Dispersion modeling Studies, Air Quality Modeling Simulation and Air Pollution Dispersion Modelling, which played an important role in forecasting the dispersion dynamics of harmful pollutants.

Types of CFD Modelling

The theoretical foundation that governs all CFD modeling is the Navier-Stokes equations. This set of physics equations can be used to mathematically describe both Single phases as well as Multiphase fluid flow conditions.

At BroadTech Engineering, we use advanced CFD modeling and CFD flow analysis software which covers extensively a wide range of our client’s engineering analysis challenges such as

1. Simulation of the Hydrodynamic performance of internal and external flow (Dynamic & Steady state).
2. Simulation of internal fluid flow
3. Simulation of free surface fluid flow

These engineering simulation scenarios are often done in combination or as a supplement to the testing of physical prototype models.

Features & Benefits of CFD Modeling

1. Comprehensive Picture

CFD modeling and Flow simulation results provided by CFD consulting Companies can offer detailed and full insight into the physics and hydro-dynamics performance behavior of the investigated problem.
The Ability to accurately understand and investigate the dynamic motion behavior of Fluid flow of liquids and gasses in detail through the results provided by a Fluid Dynamics Company is of great value in the optimization of a wide range of engineering design applications
This is in contrast to physical prototype testing, where the test data/results captured is only limited/restricted to a few measuring points.

2. Early Validation of Engineering Design

Through the running of CFD Fluid Flow simulation analysis throughout the engineering design process design flaws such as errors in judgment, can be identified and addressed before they turn into serious problems, such as
  • Overheating of electronic PCB components
  • Building collapse due to Structural failure when subjected to wind loads
  • Failure of car parts
The Economical consequence of such failures can be serious, such as product recall from the market, legal lawsuits or even loss of life.


About Us

BroadTech Engineering is a Leading Engineering Simulation and Numerical Modelling Consultancy in Singapore.
We Help Our Clients Gain Valuable Insights to Optimize and Improve Product Performance, Reliability, and Efficiency.


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CFD Modeling

1. Powerful CFD Simulation Software Tools

2. CFD Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

2. CFD Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

3. Projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

3. Projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

4. Proven Track Record

4. Proven Track Record

5. Affordable

5. Affordable

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

6. Full Knowledge Transfer

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Explore what CFD Modeling can do for your company today by calling us at +6594357865 for a no obligation discussion of your needs.
If you have any questions or queries, our knowledgeable and friendly consultants will be glad to assist and understand more about your simulation needs and requirements

Alternatively, for quote request, simply email us your detailed technical specifications & requirements to

Other Featured CFD Modeling Case Studies

CFD Modeling of Natural Convection in Vertically Heated Rods

Our CFD consulting project titled “CFD Airflow Modelling of Natural Convection in Vertically Heated Rods” was a validation project funded by U.S DOE.
The project aimed to validate CFD Thermal Analysis results using experimental data. The motivation behind the plan was to study the cooling effects of natural convection in vertically heated rods about spent nuclear fuel cells.
The Heat Transfer simulation was performed using STAR-CCM+ using the HPC cluster. Various turbulence models were studied. The wall Y+ for natural convection modeling was maintained at ~1. About 10 million mesh cells were generated as part of this conjugate heat transfer problem. Structured hexahedral meshes were used in the Airflow Simulation. Two-layer models with Xu and Wolfstein near-wall formulations were compared.
Various turbulence models, such as k-epsilon, Spallart-Allmaras, Realizable k-epsilon, k-omega, etc., were analyzed also in the Air Flow Analysis
Based on the Thermal Simulation results, it was found that most of the turbulence models were unsuitable for transitional flow physics. At various locations in the domain, the turbulence models exhibited poor agreement with the experimental results. However, the empirical results obtained from the Transient Thermal Analysis showed good agreement on the temperature profiles in the vertically heated rods.

Supersonic Flow past a Cavity using LES approach


To study the flow field of supersonic flow of Mach number 2.0 over an open cavity and to employ a spoiler in front of the cavity to reduce shocks and noise and its comparison with the open cavity without a spoiler.


Large Eddy Simulations’s Smagorinsky model was employed. The simulation modeling is Designed using OpenFoam and Visualization in Paraview, which is popularly used for Centrifugal Pump CFD Simulation, Centrifugal Fan CFD Analysis, and Ship Hydrodynamics Simulation Studies.

Outcome & Results:

Employing a Spoiler in the same of a half-cylinder reduced the shocks and noise produced.

Steady Analysis of a Small Gas Turbine Engine


To study the effect of fillet on the gas turbine performance of a Small Gas Turbine Engine


Fillet and grid generation in NUMECA’s AutoGrid5 | 3D analysis in ANSYS-CFX CFD software, which is commonly used for Centrifugal Pump Simulation Analysis, Jet Fan CFD Simulation and Centrifugal Fan CFD Analysis Studies.


There was a decrease in performance, however, still meeting the desired design requirements.

Design of Single Stage Axial Gas Turbine


To design a single stage axial gas turbine to the given parameters


Hand calculation for the initial flow path sizing | Meanline design in Concepts NREC’s AXIAL, which is popularly used in Centrifugal Pump CFD analysis simulation.
Blade profiling and blade-to-blade analysis of Concepts
 NREC’s AxCent | Grid generation in NUMECA’s AutoGrid5 | 3D analysis and extensive flow field study in ANSYS-CFX and NUMECA’s FineTurbo

Outcome & Results:

We met the given Performance requirements of the axial turbine Design

Performance and acoustic analysis of Tidal turbines using CFD Modeling

– Completed a comparison study as part of the FSI Analysis Services rendered for optimizing thee rotor performance of a tidal turbine in terms of the torque and power output at various in-stream velocities. Also determined wake recovery rates for those in-stream velocities using turbulence intensities and established the most efficient one. Wake recovery rates can be used to determine the wake length behind the tidal turbine.
– Our FSI Consulting Engineers Carried out acoustic analysis of sound produced by the turbine blades due to the formation of vortices and eddies by using aero-acoustic methods. Determined that there is an increase in the attenuation intensity with decrease in in-stream velocities as the location of the acoustic receiver moves away from the turbine.
– Modelled the geometry using tools such as Solidworks and ANSYS Design Modeller, performed meshing operations using Ansys ICEM CFD and carried out flow simulations using ANSYS Fluent using the DDES and the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model.

CFD Hydrodynamic Modelling of ballast Water ultraviolet facility

Semb-Eco ballast water ultraviolet facility is studied and scale-up in this water treatment Simulation Modeling project
CFD Modeling is to couple the hydrodynamic model, UV radiation model and particle model in OpenFOAM CFD Software.
The Objective of the CFD Analysis Services rendered is to Simulate and investigate the survival rate of the micro-organisms under UV radiation and fluid flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation, so as to help the client to make an informed and responsible Design Decision when Constructing the UV facility.
The customized solver in OpenFOAM was developed and applied in the Wastewater Treatment Simulation application and investigated the efficiency of the UV facility.

Designing flow systems to acquire desired flow patterns for industrial purposes

– Established a numerical model to simulate the flow in a given flow configuration using available input parameters and CAD model and compared the simulation results with the experimental results. This has useful application in many engineering performance optimizations, such as Centrifugal Pump Impeller CFD Analysis Simulation, Ship Hydrodynamics Simulation, and Aircraft Aerodynamics Simulation
– With the established turbulence model from the validated data, simulations for other test configurations were carried out. Changes were made accordingly in the design of the flow system configuration to acquire the desired flow pattern.
– Prototypes of the new flow configuration setups were manufactured for industrial purposes, such as for performing Airfoil Simulation Analysis, Computational Aeroacoustics Studies, and Vehicle Dynamics Simulation.
– The hexahedral mesh was created to reduce the computational time and CFD simulations were carried out in ANSYS Fluent using the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Morphed Spacers Design for Membrane Flux Enhancement

(Industrial funded project conducted in Apr 2017 to Dec 2017):

The major problems for the pressure-driven membrane processes of microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) is fouling and concentration polarization which both reduce the flux. Three to five times flux enhancements have been reported for spacer-filled channels in comparison with empty channels.
In this ESD Consultancy project, I have first validated the model results for an empty channel with the previous CFD Turbulence Modeling data. Three different shapes of spacers (circle, square and triangle) have been tested and the permeate flux is monitored for each case.
A square spacer gave the maximum enhancement out of the three spacers. Further, a mesh morphing technique has been employed on single and zig-zag square spacers to investigate spacer design optimization.
From the Turbulence Simulation, it has been concluded that the zig-zag spacers give the maximum flux enhancement and alternative spacers get a similar shape after morphing.
Transported PDF modeling of pollutants at Diesel Engines Conditions (Ph.D. thesis):
The Turbulent Flow Simulation project was carried out during my Ph. D, where I have done CFD of diesel-relevant spray combustion with a focus on the interconnected aspects of turbulence, chemistry, radiation and pollutant formation, particularly the formation of soot.
The approach used in this Multiphysics Simulation project was the transported probability density function method and pollutants were modeled using the semi-empirical soot models, while the radiation is considered the discrete ordinates method and compared to an optically thin model. Time, mesh, number of particles per cell and ISAT tolerance, independence studies were carried out to achieve the best validation with experimental data.
The key aspects of this project are as follows:
  1. A detailed analysis of soot formation processes is presented and quantitative comparisons of experimental soot measurements reported.
  2. Radiation and TRI were found to play relatively minor roles in terms of both soot and NO; however, in contrast to soot, NO was significantly affected by TCI.

Discover and Learn CFD Modeling Project.

This CFD Consultancy project aims to provide a unique platform where a Mechanical Engineering student can discover and learn a lot more than the usual courses in terms of real-world implementation and also get a chance to enhance their synergistic activity.
Working on this CFD Consulting project gave students the exposure to CFD Simulation application in the field of design and optimization. The key aim of this CFD Simulation project to bring up the college students together by their passion for technology, innovation and creativity and fabricating an open-wheel race car (Electric/Combustion) with focus on good design, reliability and performance. The fabricated Cars runs on Formula student SAE design competitions organized by SAE International.
During this CFD Consulting project, Our CFD Consultants was a mentor of the student team which involved in the design of full aero-package for Formula Style Student Race-Car. Later, this designed and fabricated race care bagged the1st prize in Designing event in the electric category at Formula Bharat 2018. The Ax8lr Formula racing student club of IIT Delhi was formed in 2006. Since then the team has participated in various international Formula Student events like Formula Student UK 2012, Formula Student India 2015, Formula Student Germany 2016 and 2017.

Modeling combustion to investigate the temperature, pressure and species variations in abatement systems used in the purification of toxic gases for semiconductor manufacturing industries using CFD

– The Species Transport model provided by ANSYS Fluent was used to carry out the combustion modeling in the Thermodynamics Simulation and determine the temperature and species distribution inside the exhaust system.
To perform the Transient Thermal Analysis A new thermodynamic database was added for those species not available in the Fluent database.
– A combination of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements was used to mesh the computational domain used in the Steady State Thermal Analysis.
– Species variation in the exhaust system was determined using Heat Exchanger Simulation as well as the hot spots in the system that require suitable design changes to reduce the thermal loading on the material of the exhaust system.

CFD Modeling and Simulation Project: Numerical analysis of gas distribution in fluidized bed dryers

Numerical study of gas distribution system in fluidized bed dryers 

Simulation objective:

The objectives of this project are to improve the performance of fluidized bed drying using different ideas such as, new designs of the distribution plate and gas chamber, by modifying the gas injection system or by using intermittency. The goal of this FSI Simulation is to carry out numerical study to understand the effect various operating parameters and geometric changes. The numerical simulations will be carried out using ANSYS Fluent V18.2.


The main objectives of the current FSI Analysis project are to improve the uniformity of air distribution in a fluidized bed by implementing some new designs of the distribution plate and inlet gas chamber with bottom and side entry. The goal is to carry out numerical analysis for a better understanding of the effect of proposed plate designs on air distribution.
An academic ANSYS version 18.1 and 18.2 were used for the stimulation of the designs selected for this study. The fluidized bed geometry used for the simulation was of the pilot scale size and the parameters, such as the plate thickness, orifice diameter and the open area used are similar to the ones used for industrial applications. Based on the understanding from the results achieved from different designs, the best designs are proposed and suggested for industrial applications. The aim is to make simple modifications to the distributor plate design and get as uniform air distribution as possible. The Gas distribution of a fluidized bed column consisting of the gas chamber and the gas distributor are simulated together for a single-phase i.e., air as an inlet fluid.
The airflow in the inlet gas chamber is analyzed as a single-phase three-dimensional transient turbulent flow. Governing Equations consist of Continuity and momentum equation, The Realizable k-ϵ Model with Enhanced near wall function treatment along with pressure coefficient enabled was used to calculate the effective turbulent viscosity at each point from the velocity and length scale.
The Equation of continuity and momentum were numerically solved by the FLUENT solver. The finite volume approach for flow solution is a quite beneficial methodology employed by the FLUENT solver for the satisfaction of governing Equations of continuity and momentum and relatively coarse grid modeling. Pressure velocity coupling with the SIMPLE algorithm scheme is used to simulate single-phase models in this research. The fluidization velocity is theoretically calculated using the Ergun equation for fluidization based on test particle density. The gas velocity at inlet is calculated based on the area of inlet and velocity at the orifice is given from bottom/side entry.

Outcome & Conclusion:

In this research, several gas distribution systems with various gas distributor designs were proposed. Their performance in terms of the uniformity of gas distribution at the exit of orifice holes of the gas distributor was examined with the use of Turbulence CFD Modeling for the computational fluid dynamic analysis. The simulations were carried out in ANSYS FLUENT v18.1 and 18.2 using single-phase models.
The base case design of gas distributor with a uniform percentage open area showed the non-uniform distribution of gas. Hence, the distributor geometries with different percentage open area (for circular pattern and triangular pitch arrangement), type of gas entry were used to understand if the quality of fluidization can be improved. It was observed that the non-uniformity of gas distribution of circular pattern increases as the percentage open area is increased from 15 to 20; however, the gas distribution again improved for 25% open area, we would like to check this behavior again. On the other hand, for the triangular pitch arrangement of the orifice holes (which is the most commonly used arrangement in industries), the non-uniformity increases as the percentage open area are increased.
The comparison of two patterns of orifice arrangement for the lower open area showed that the triangular pitch arrangement provides a better air distribution. The results also revealed that the non-uniformity in air distribution occurs mainly in the central and middle part of gas distributor for lower open area, while, for the plates with higher percentage open area, the non-uniformity is prominent near the edges of the gas distributor plate. An attempt is made to further improve the uniformity using variable open areas in different regions of the plate. The simulation results of the variable opening area proved that the new design can generate better gas distribution with a more uniform velocity pattern than the designs discussed earlier, at least for the bottom entry of the gas nozzle. The simulation results also show that the gas distribution is severely affected by a gas nozzle entry position. The results show that the bottom entry position of nozzle provides uniform distribution, while the side entry results in severe non-uniformity in gas distribution.

Types of CFD Simulation Scenarios


1. Compressible Flow

Compressible fluid flow is where the fluid density changes with the Pressure values. Such Fluid flows are typically high speed flows with Mach numbers more than 0.3
Examples include Aerodynamic applications such as optimization of Fluid flow over a plane wing aerofoil as well as applications in industrial processes such as engineering of Fluid flow through high-performance grade valves
The simulation analysis of compressible flow takes into account the formation of shocks.
In the case of liquid, it comes in the form of water hammers.

2. Incompressible Flow

In most engineering applications, the Fluid flow involved is incompressible and turbulent, where the flow speed is below Mach 0.3. In such simulation applications, and Advanced solver is needed.

3. Cavitation

Cavitation is a physical phenomenon that occurs in many high-velocity liquid flows. It occurs when vapor bubbles are formed when the liquid pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid.
Prolonged cavitation have a negative effect of causing pitting and erosion in devices, resulting in a significant reduction in efficiency, costly downtime and repairs
Cavitation is a common occurrence in equipment, such as
  1. Industrial mixing Propellers. This is where Propeller simulation and Cavitation CFD Simulation is performed to predict and Prevent formation of Cavitation
  2. High-performance valves
  3. Pumps axial fans, which are commonly studied in Fan CFD Simulation Projects such as Axial Fan CFD simulation, Centrifugal Fan CFD simulation, and Jet Fan CFD analysis simulation.
  4. Flow control valves  devices
Using CFD Multiphysics Modeling simulation, we can efficiently and quickly analyzed
  1. Predicts the Onset and location of bubble formation within the flow
  2. Track the vapor bubble to volume fraction.
Let us quickly cover the basic terminology of Engineering Simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mean and how they fit into your engineering development workflow processes.

What is Engineering Simulation

Engineering Simulation is an integral and key part of the digital prototyping process. Essentially the 3d CAD modeling of your product concept design is your digital prototype.
It is from this digital model that important engineering design data is verified, Tested and Validated along each of the engineering development value chain in the businesses, from Fabrication to Production and finally to Sales and Marketing
Engineering simulation is used mainly in the early Test and Validation phase of the digital prototyping process, during which important questions need to be answered. This includes questions such as:
– How light can the design be made while optimizing it for maximum strength
– Can the design withstand the loading forces? Will the design break?
– What is the physical performance like when the temperature fluctuates
– Streamlining the Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics of a Design form factor, commonly used in applications such as Ship Hull Design Optimization, Ship Propeller CFD Simulation.

# Why Engineering Simulation

Engineering Simulation allows companies to create better products in less time and at lower costs.

1. Early Engineering Insights

Engineering simulation offers Accurate and Reliable results early in the design development process to help the team make more informed design decisions to optimize their products.
It also allows Failure modes to be identified and flaws to uncovered early in the engineering development phase where corrective action is flexible that allows changes to be implemented relatively with minimal cost.
This helps tremendously in the creation of higher quality products and prevents costly product failure when the product is launched.

2. Save Time & Money

Traditionally, questions concerning a design performance have been answered through Fabricating and Testing numerous physical prototype variants which is an extremely expensive and tedious process.
By leveraging on engineering simulation, you can test digital models in a virtual environment, thereby helping to reduce time and cost as fewer physical prototypes are required for testing. This is especially important in the Shipbuilding industry, where the Ship design has to be optimized and validated, CFD modeling is widely used for Ship Trim Optimization studies, Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics Simulation, Green Water Loading Simulation, and Wind Flow Analysis Simulation.

3. Complete Picture

Through the use of CFD simulation analysis, can provide a comprehensive view of the fluid flow behavior.
This accurate engineering insight helps to inspire questions and critical thinking which is important for driving innovation.
This is in contrast to the individual testing of each variation of physical prototypes, which only provides discrete pieces of test data

4. Accelerated Testing Cycle & Rate of Innovation

In a virtual simulation environment, designers and engineers have the flexibility to test and Explore more what-if scenarios as such engineering simulation is not bounded by physical scale, cost, or external environmental conditions. This is commonly applied in areas such as Naval Ship Design Hydrodynamics for purpose of Ship Design Optimization and studying Ship Hydrodynamics Performance when Subjected to various operation wave conditions at sea.
As the performance of specific Engineering designs when subjected to specific external conditions can be accurately predicted, it helps to shorten the prototype testing cycles involved in optimizing the Materials and Design features.