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Piping Engineering

Piping Engineering is at the core of what we do in our Singapore office at BroadTech Engineering. Piping Engineering

Featured Piping Engineering Case Studies

Pipeline Topology Optimization for PetroChemical Plant

Objective: For topology optimization, our consultants made several very simple simulations. The objectives were to optimize pipelines (to choose the best variant). The simulations were done for Angarsk petrochemical company and for Irkutsk Aluminium Smelter. We optimized the construction of some parts of gas treatment center at Irkutsk Aluminium Smelter.
Approach: Star-CCM+ and ANSYS CFX simulation were implemented.
Results: Pipe-lines and ducting systems are working according to simulation results. We prepared a report to the client detailing the gas duct system for a gas treatment center.

Simulation of Piping Networks for Aluminum Processing industrial complex

Objective: Various projects for Steam and condensate piping networks interconnecting vessels in different process units in mill bauxite section with different pipe sizes from 32’’ to 4’’. Pipe material API5L Gr.B. Design steam temperature 198 C, pressure 13 bar.
Approach: Simulation is done with ANSI B 31.1 code by using Caesar II and CAEPipe software, considering different cases with Sustained load + Thermal expansion + Occasional loads, according to isometric drawings.
Simulation results:
Code stress compliance report
Provide the adequate flexibility by using pipe loops and offsets.
Selection of restrains types (anchors, guides etc.) and detailed design.
Effect of piping loads on static and condensate pumps nozzle’s equipment
Spring hanger selection and calculation.

Analysis of New Buoy system Mooring facility for Crude Oil Unloading

Background: 2 x 32’’ Crude oil offshore piping system connecting to onshore pig receiver/launcher station. Pipe material API5L Gr.B, with external coating protection.
Approach: Simulation is done with ANSI B 31.1 / DNV code by using Caesar II software.
Simulation results:
Hydrodynamic stability analysis. Pipelines covered with prefabricated concrete elements due to transition zone location. Effect of piping loads on pig launcher /receiver, nozzle’s equipment.

New Heavy fuel oil unloading jetty, for Rabigh 2x600 Mw station project, Rabigh Saudi Arabia

Background: 2 x 26’’ HFO piping system interconnecting the jetty loading arm with storage tanks area. Pipe material API5L Gr.B. Design temperature 70 °C, pressure 10 bar.
Approach: Simulation is done with ANSI B 31.1 code by using Caesar II software, considering different cases with Sustained load + Thermal expansion + Occasional loads and Vibration analysis.
Simulation results:
Code stress compliance report.
Provide the adequate flexibility by using pipe loops and offsets.
Selection of restrains types (anchors, guides etc.) and detailed design.
Effect of piping loads on static (pig launcher /receiver, storage tank) and booster pumps nozzle’s equipment.
Spring hanger selection and calculation.
Mode shape and natural frequency.
Harmonic forces and displacements.
Force spectrum analysis.

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1. Powerful Simulation Software Tools

1. Powerful Simulation Software Tools

2. Simulation Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

2. Simulation Consultants with Extensive Research & Professional Experience

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3. Simulation projects Completed in a Timely and Cost-effective Manner

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4. Proven Track Record

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5. Affordable

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Simulation of Multi-phase Slug Flow in Production Flow Line

Simulation Objective
A batch of lines from the production flow line was to be analyzed for slugging. Slug force was to be hand calculated and input at the changes of direction to calculate the stresses, pipe support loads and equipment nozzle loads where applicable.
Methodology/Approach
The slug density, as well as the velocity, was received from the process group. The slug forces were calculated at bends using parameters such as slug density, velocity, pipe OD, thickness, Dynamic Amplification is taken as 2 conservatively and bend angle of the pipe. On the Caesar II program, the resultant slug forces were then applied at each of the piping bends. The random nature of slugging was captured in the load cases used in Caesar II. The loading was then used to calculate the pipe stresses and/or failures, design the pipe supports & equipment nozzles.
Outcome & Conclusion
Due to the high slug forces, there were failures in a certain portion of the piping. Pipe size and thickness was increased in certain cases to reduce the velocity of the slug through those portions, therefore, giving lower slug forces. In some areas, introducing a line stop support will be sufficient to take the slug loads, therefore, reducing the stresses.

Fatigue Damage in FPSO Piping system

Simulation Objective
For a FPSO project, the integrity of the new piping system (design life of 20 years) with regards to fatigue damage caused by both internal (fluid temperature cycles, fluid pressure cycles, 2-phase slug density fluctuation cycles etc) & external (seawave induced ship motions/accelerations, sea wave induced hog and sag etc) loadings were to be analysed. Wherever failures were observed, solutions were expected.
Methodology/Approach
This analysis was performed through the use of the Caesar II program as well as a dedicated excel sheet prepared by me to calculate the total accumulated damage against the allowable damage imposed by the project specification. Since it was a project requirement, the DNV-RP-C203 code was used in the calculation of the damage. The S/N curve and the relevant parameters are given for different weld classes in the DNV code. Using S, the calculated stresses obtained from Caesar II the value of N, cycles to failure can be obtained. Through project experience, the actual number of cycles that the pipework will experience through its design life can be noted for each of the different fatigue types. Project-specific Weibull shape parameter is used along with those parameters to calculate the N value. The value of n/N will denote fatigue damage for each particular type. The damage for each of the fatigue type is then calculated and compared with the allowable of 1/DFF where DFF is a concentration factor used in the project.
Outcome & Conclusion
The outcome was that fatigue was passing in the majority of the piping except for a few areas. We modified the pipe support type (introducing a guide) to arrest the excessive movement caused by wave motion acceleration. While it reduced the wave-induced acceleration stresses, it increased the thermal stresses as well, however, we managed to find a balance between the two in those areas to solve this issue. For cases we were not able to find this balance, we recommended the operational team to increase the frequency of fatigue crack checks on these areas of piping.

Pulsation Analysis of RGTF Piping System

Simulation Objective:
This was based on RGTF project (Refrigerated and Gaseous Tank Facilities) regarding pulsation analysis on piping systems near compressor area. The objective of the analysis is to comply with the requirement of API 618 for the reciprocating compressor to avoid nonresonant vibration of connected piping. The piping in pulsation risk area shall comply with the minimum support span based on the lowest natural frequency (RPM/ 60 Hz) on this project. The natural frequency of this piping shall also be verified by Modal analysis using Caesar II to ensure that piping natural frequency is at least 4 times (API requires 2.4 times) of compressor lowest natural frequency.
Methodology/Approach
To carry out pulsation analysis, performing the modal analysis is required for piping in pulsation risk area. Support shall be modeled as a 3 direction restraint. If Y stop is not lifted up and piping touches guide and stopper, lateral (X, Z) restraints of friction direction are added since friction helps to prevent vibration. On the other hand, for the gap, if the support lifts up (1mm for project specification) or gap at guide/ limit stop is not closed during operating condition, friction will not work for anti-vibration, therefore should be deleted. Hanger rod and strut shall not be used for pulsation piping because these cannot restrain vibration.
Outcome and conclusion
In order to comply with the frequency requirements of pulsation risk area (4x compressor lowest natural frequency), the minimum support span at design stage should be followed. Then, if modal analysis using Caesar II doesn’t meet the required frequency requirements based on minimum support span, additional support is required to meet the desired frequency with consideration of stresses, nozzle loads and support loads should be within allowable.

Greenwater loading on FPSO Piping System

Simulation Objective
In weather vaning FPSOs the waves come above the freeboard and this can result in large amounts of Greenwater enter the deck and slamming on the pipework. Stress analysis was to be conducted to predict the effect of this phenomenon and the resulting stresses and pipe support loads that are experienced. This can cause damage to the piping such as riser balcony piping as well as ring main firewater piping as well.
Methodology/Approach
The impact force per meter, normal to the pipe axis can be calculated using the following parameters. Shape factor for the piping, density of seawater, velocity of seawater and outside diameter of piping. Wave height and velocity was obtained from the seakeeping report of the project and the Force per unit meter was calculated for different sections of piping. In Caesar II program, this uniform load was applied using the variation in velocity against the elevation of the piping was input.
Outcome & Conclusion
Usually, the piping support spans have to be reduced for this kind of effect. Therefore, more guided and hold down supports (to avoid uplift due to buoyancy) were introduced to take the loads imposed by green water. Reducing the pipe size will also reduce the loads caused by green water. Small bore piping was braced as well.

Simulation Calculation of Thermal Bowing on LNG Piping Systems 

Simulation Objective
This was based on Cameron Project regarding thermal bowing calculation. In LNG Plants, thermal bowing occurs in areas of LNG Loading, LNG Rundown, and Dry Gas Flare lines. However, the scope of applicable lines was also confirmed by Process Engineers at the beginning of the project. The objective of the calculation was to evaluate primary and secondary stresses of piping systems, nozzle load, support loads and flange leakage check under the influence of thermal bowing.
Methodology/Approach
1. Know the thermal bowing delta temperature. Thermal bowing delta temperature is the difference in temperature between the top and bottom of the pipe. Example, if the top temperature is 70C and the bottom temperature is -110C, then the delta temperature is 180C.
2. Create Caesar file for thermal bowing calculation, then input the delta temperature by selecting special execution parameters from the environment.
3. Input the equivalent piping temperature and equivalent fluid density based on the condition of thermal bowing. Formulas used was based on project specification.
4. Input horizontal thermal bowing tolerance in configuration editor of Caesar file. If there are no sloped piping, set the thermal bowing tolerance as default. (Default: 0.0001). If there are sloped in piping, set horizontal thermal bowing tolerance larger than the piping slope. For example, if the piping slope is 1/500, set the tolerance to 1/499 or larger.
5. Set upload case setting. Bowing calculation shall be done by T1 which is the equivalent temperature of thermal bowing.
Outcome and Conclusion
In the analysis of piping systems under thermal bowing condition, if primary stresses failed, additional support is required to absorb the weight of piping during this condition. If secondary stresses failed, hold down support is recommended to lessen the expansion stresses of piping under this condition. If piping is connected to equipment, check if the loads on the nozzle are still within the allowable. If not, modify supports near equipment nozzle. If the piping still fail and modification of support is not enough to pass stresses, nozzle loads, support loads and flange leakage of piping, piping layout modification/ rerouting is necessary.

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