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Turbulence Modeling for CFD

Turbulence Modeling for CFD is at the core of what we do at our Singapore office in BroadTech Engineering.

Featured CFD Turbulence Modelling Case Studies

Turbulence Modeling for CFD

CFD Analysis of Turbulent Fluid Flow inside a Pipe 

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of fully developed turbulent flow in a pipe is implemented with the help of StarCCM+ software and the variation of axial velocity and skin friction coefficient along the length of pipe is analyzed. The fluids used for this purpose are air and water. The results obtained computationally are compared with the results obtained analytically.
For a turbulent case of air, the centreline velocity for a fully developed region is around 1.19m/s while the value calculated analytically is 1.22m/s. Similarly, for the turbulent case of water, the value of centreline velocity for fully developed region according to figure 4 is 0.061m/s while the value obtained analytically is equal to 0.06122m/s.  Similarly, for the fully developed turbulent flow of air and water, the value of skin friction coefficient comes out to be 0.01 and 0.009 respectively while the values obtained computationally are 0.00795 and 0.01.
 It is also observed from the results that the axial velocity against the position of centreline also reveal that the axial velocity increases along the length of pipe and after some distance, it becomes constant which is in conformity to the results obtained experimentally. The results of the skin friction coefficient against the position of centreline also reveal that the skin friction decreases along the length of pipe and after some distance, it becomes constant which is in conformity to the results obtained experimentally.

Flow & Transient Temperature Field Estimation in a Pressure Vessel

In this study CFD simulation numerical analysis of fluid flow in a pressure vessel, having annular flow paths is carried out using finite volume scheme. Such turbulent fluid flow path and geometry is encountered in many applications like in heat exchangers, power plants, and pressure vessels. Determination of flow and temperature field and the change of thermal characteristics with the inlet water are of particular interest for design and safety of the vessel. The work involved developing computer code (in Fortran90) for obtaining flow field for two-dimensional flow model of the actual problem, wherein fluid flow from the bottom of the vessel upwards and gets distributed through different flow paths and fluid after reaching a pre-defined zone joins with large pool. The problem was solved by a finite volume method. The solution methodology involves a semi-implicit iterative algorithm (SIMPLE).
The CFD simulation results were used to identify the stagnation region in the vessel and improve upon the design.

High Fidelity Computational Assessment of the Unsynchronized & Synchronized Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT)

To analyze the performance change of the combined VAWTs of different types compared to single VAWT.
The CFD analysis of the performance of the turbines using the turbulence modeling like RANS as well as LES in a commercial code STAR-CCM+
The LES turbulence model seems to be giving a good approximation of the forces, moments, as it computes instantaneous flow field that involves eddies with smaller length and time scale.
Savonius rotor increases the static torque of the Darrieus rotor which helps in quick initial rotation of the combined Savonius-Darrieus rotor turbine. However, after gaining the full rotational speed, its performance of the power output must be studied. It comes out that, for the 5% interference, the power output of one of the synchronized rotor increases by 62.78% compared to that of the single rotor when operated separately, and that for 11% interference, power increases by 72.97%, but it gives 49% rise in the case of 16% interference.

Binary Ostwald-De Waele Fluid

Simulation Objective: Thermosolutal buoyancy opposed free convection of a binary Ostwald-De Waele fluid
Methodology/Approach used :
The Modified Marker and Cell (MMAC) method is used for obtaining the numerical solution of the governing equations (in-house developed code). A gradient-dependent consistent hybrid upwind scheme of second order (GDCHUSSO) is used for the discretization of the convective terms.
Outcome & Conclusion
Heat and mass transfer and stability for a different arrangement of an active surface was studied for different power-law index and their effect on stability at critical buoyancy ratio is delineated.

Prediction of Lift force for Drone Wing at different RPM Conditions

CFD Transient flow simulation analysis of drone wing was done using SA turbulence model to dynamically calculate the lift force at different RPM.
The objective of this project is to design wax injection dual nozzle machine for investment casting. CFD was heavily used to determine temperature thermal efficiency and to analyze the turbulent fluid flow behavior.
The method is to simplify the design to match the internal volume of the tank, set the boundary condition; 60Mpa & 80’c at the inlet, ambient pressure at the outlet.
As for the case study, our CFD engineers vary the volume of the tank to see the difference in flow as the content depletes. As for the result, we managed to tabulate the outlet velocity at both nozzle and temperature difference as it cools down at the nozzle. The design is amended and justified according to the results.

Thermosolutal Convection CFD Turbulence Simulation

Simulation Objective
Interaction of participating media radiation with thermosolutal convection
Methodology/Approach used
The Modified Marker and Cell (MMAC) method is used for obtaining the numerical solution of the governing flow equations (in-house developed code). A gradient-dependent consistent hybrid upwind scheme of second order (GDCHUSSO) is used for the discretization of the convective terms. Discrete Ordinate Method with S8 approximation is used for the solution of the radiative transport equation.
Outcome & Conclusion
The effect of thermal radiation on stabilization of the convection at critical buoyancy ratio is noticed and reported.

CFD Simulation and analysis of dynamic Turbulent Fluid flow for Re-entry Studies of a Hypersonic Vehicle

Objective: HSTDV (Hypersonic test demonstration vehicle) is a project taken up by my previous organization, which involved complex heat flux predictions to be carried out on the flying vehicle.
Approach: RANS equations with turbulence modeling was used for this particular problem as a first estimation. Further Large eddy simulation studies were planned to be carried out for the flow dynamics at the high altitude and velocity that the vehicle will experience.
Result: Simulation showed high values of heat flux predictions, and huge flaws in the design and the material used. Few other turbulence models were suggested, to check for the solver dependence and the validation of solution methodology.

Rayleigh-Benard Convection Modelling of Molten Gallium

Simulation Objective: Three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection of molten gallium in a rotating cuboid under the influence of a vertical magnetic field
Methodology/Approach used: The governing equations are used in a non-inertial frame of reference considering both centrifugal and Coriolis force. A 3D Modified Marker and a Cell-based in-house code are developed for the simulation.
Outcome & Conclusion: Effect of rotational Rayleigh number, Coriolis force and magnetic field on flow and heat transfer was obtained.

Synthetic-Eddy CFD Simulation & Analysis of Dynamic Turbulent Fluid Flow

Synthetic-Eddy method to simulate high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer: An in-house CFD code was written primarily in Fortran to simulate fully developed turbulent boundary layer. The method used here for CFD turbulence modeling can be applied to any external flow situation where a fully developed turbulent flow is essential (Eg. Wind turbines, Aerodynamics simulation of aircraft, building aerodynamics). Furthermore, we introduced micro-bubbles close to the wall to see their overall effect on the drag. It was proved that these bubbles modify the near wall turbulent eddies thereby modifying the wall shear stress and drag.

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